Among more than 400 types of cloves there are one-, two- and perennial plants. The stem is usually smooth, but with nodes and half lignified, the leaves of a greenish-bluish tint have an elongated shape, arranged in pairs on the stem. There are species with single flowers and inflorescences, the size of the flower varies over a fairly wide range. The aroma of the flowers is delicate, elusive, sometimes it seems that it is completely absent. The edges of the petals (in naturally occurring species there are 5 of them) are smooth or dissected, terry flowers and corrugated petals, which can be seen in some varieties, are very impressive. The color palette of petals of natural species includes red, pink and white shades. In artificially bred varieties, the petals can be painted in cream, purple, yellow tones, have a contrasting border or center.
The fruit of cloves is a box inside which there are many black seeds of a flat shape. Seeds are sown in all seasons except winter, both for seedlings and in open ground.
The following types are most popular:
- Dutch (especially gardeners like Chabot, American, dwarf, grenadine, souvenir de Malmaison);
- bearded (Turkish);
- White - delicate flowers from pure white to milky. They are given in order to characterize you as a bright, charming and positive person.
- Black (Turkish) - the flowers are so dark burgundy in color that it seems as if they are black. Popular as a tribute to people at religious and other funeral services.
- Sandy - grows in glades and meadows. Unremarkable, at first glance, vegetation, grassy, with fluffy, delicate flowers. In colors, white is also found here. It is listed in the Red Book, so donation of this kind is out of the question. Among the people, the carnation sand has other names, more popular: dawn, field tear, maiden grass.
- Green (Japanese, spherical) - an exotic flower, giving which there is a risk of permanently remaining original. It is very rare in our country. Used to create beautiful flower arrangements.
- Yellow - in spite of its attractiveness, plants with yellow inflorescences allude to some wariness. But not always a yellow flower symbolizes negative feelings.
- Pink is a symbol of maternal love. Very popular in America on Mother's Day. It is worth noting that such a gift expresses gratitude. The color palette of inflorescences is rich, they can be from pale pink to bright crimson. You can grow both for cutting, and for the design of flower beds and rabatok.
- Chinese is a bush with a height of 20 to 50 cm, at the time of flowering, strewn with inflorescences of various sizes, colors and degrees of terry. Distributed due to its unpretentiousness, resistance to frost and lack of moisture.
- Remontant - single large flowers. This species is also called Dutch large-flowered or greenhouse. There are red, pink, yellow, purple, two-tone, orange and white cloves. This plant bred Dalmé, a gardener from France. In any color scheme, they are suitable for gift giving both singly and in a bouquet.
- Undersized. Perfect for flower beds and rabatok. Due to the fact that the stem of the plant is not very high, it does not require garter.
- Mountain is widespread in Asia and Europe. All types of flower of mountain origin found their place in the stone gardens.
- Clove "grenadines" among amateur gardeners is less popular in comparison with Turkish. “Grenadine” is much better in aroma, appearance and ease of cultivation. Inflorescences are white, scarlet and pink, of varying degrees of terry.
- Alpine carnation hails from the Austrian Alps. This compact view is great for landscape use.
- Eastern clove is perennial. The height of the plants is small, about 10-35 cm. They are not suitable for cutting, but look great in flower beds.
- Moonlight carnation is popular among gardeners. The color of this flower is pale lilac. Often, brides choose it for a bouquet. A flower costs a little more than usual. Petals are dense, despite the fragile appearance.
- Grayish-blue carnation is another representative of unique colors. It is a representative of perennials. The bushes of this flower are wide, spread. Well suited for landing on alpine slides.
- Indian Carnation - This plant is not suitable for cutting. It can be grown both in the garden and on the windowsill in pots.
- Dutch can be either annual or perennial. In height, the plant is within 30-60 cm. The colors are very beautiful, delicate.
Varieties of cloves differ, including the flowering periods, the length of the peduncle, the shape, color and terry of the petals. Low-growing varieties are suitable for planting in rock gardens and along the edges of flower beds
Repairing varieties (their peculiarity is to bloom more than once a year) with a stem length of 60 cm or more are grown in flower greenhouses and greenhouses for the purpose of subsequent sale. There are also low-growing varieties with a stem length of less than 35 cm. An intermediate position is occupied by medium-sized varieties (stem length 35-60 cm), which are convenient to grow on a balcony or in a flower bed. Dwarf repairing varieties feel great in pots.
Planting perennial garden cloves
So that the plant does not die, you need to take into account several rules:
- experts recommend planting cloves in well-fertilized soil;
- Before buying, be sure to look at the photo of the species so as not to get a surprise in the form of an unexpected color or size;
- types of soil, the most comfortable for such flowers, - with an admixture of sand, clay, peat;
- a prerequisite is moderate watering: if water often gets on the site, the root system may rot, and with rare watering the plant dies.
If you really want to grow such a beautiful plant as perennial cloves, but the soil does not meet the necessary requirements, you can try to adjust its composition: it is recommended to loosen the acidic with the addition of dolomite flour, and heavy - with river sand or a small amount of peat. But even such actions do not give confidence that the plant will accept and will delight the owners with beautiful flowers.
To get timely seedlings, sowing seeds is necessary in March, then, with good germination, in May, you can transplant cloves in open ground.
To do this, prepare one or more small containers filled with soil - sand, peat and earth calcined in a pan. Perennial cloves are sown on top of the soil in a container, then lightly sprinkled with sand and covered with plastic wrap, it must be periodically lifted and the condensate formed should be brushed off. For timely and normal germination of the variety, the temperature should be at least 17 ° C. Planting and caring for this plant require a little effort and time, but the result will please its appearance and excellent flowering.
Watering should be done infrequently, as the soil dries up, and after growing two seedlings from seedlings, it must be dived. The appearance of 4 leaves indicates the need for a second transplant, and the 5th sheet must be pinched. An important step is the hardening process: pots with plants are taken out to fresh air in mid-April. A mandatory warning is the prevention of drafts that can harm, and the flowers begin to hurt or die. In open ground, you can transplant if the air temperature reaches 16-17 ° C and there is no sharp change in weather conditions.
Cloves: types and cultivation (video)
Growing and caring for seedlings
Clove seedlings can be planted in a box with pre-moistened soil. Then shallow grooves (0.3 cm) are made in the ground, between which 2 cm is left. Next, the seeds are distributed along the grooves (not too thick), sprinkled with earth (sand), watered with water and covered with transparent cellophane. In the room where there is a box with seedlings, the temperature should not fall below + 24 °. Periodically, it is necessary to remove the condensation that appears on the cellophane.
The first shoots can be seen on the 7-10th day. Then the cellophane is removed during daylight hours, you can use the backlight.
At night, the sprouts should be covered to protect against temperature differences.
A small amount of water is used to water the seedlings. It is recommended to add soil to the stem of clove sprouts to give them stability, and generally do this during the growth period. When 2-3 full leaves are formed, seedlings must be planted so that they do not have competition for access to light. To obtain compact bushes, you need to pinch the growth point, preferably several times. The grown seedlings are hardened and planted in open ground towards the end of May or at the beginning of June, leaving at least 20 cm of space between plants.
Carnation propagation methods
Reproduction can also be carried out vegetatively - by cuttings, layering. These methods are good in that the new plant will have all the species characteristics.
A clove is characterized by a powerful main root and numerous lateral roots, sometimes the lateral shoots take root, and allow a new clove bush to grow.
A fair number of clove varieties require propagation by special cuttings. The most suitable time for grafting is the last of May and the first decade of June. You should know that cloves are cut correctly if the cut is exactly under the knot. Shank should have a length of approx. 10 cm and 3-4 knots. The lower two pairs of leaves are cut. With a scalpel or a well-sharpened knife, a straight incision is made in depth 1/3 of the stem, the notch is the section of the stem between the two lower nodes. Incised cuttings are stuck in a moistened substrate and placed in a cold greenhouse. Roots will form in 2-3 weeks.
Often used propagation of cloves using layering, especially if it has long vegetative stems (bearded cloves). As with grafting, you need to make a vertical incision in the area between the two nodes and then pin the shoot to the ground, sprinkle with sand and regularly water, so that there is always moist ground in the area of the incision. When the roots are sufficiently developed, the shoots from a higher node will grow. At this point, the young plant can already be separated from the main bush.
In general, caring for a plant is not difficult, the most capricious in this regard is clove Shabo, on its example and see what kind of care is required. Best of all, the flower will grow on a sunny slope with well-moistened fertile soil, but it can survive on rather scarce lands. The carnation sown in January will bloom in July and will delight with its blooming appearance until the first frost. After the appearance of peduncles near the bushes, supportive restrictions are placed that will not allow them to decay. If winter is not severe, but rather mild, warm, then cloves can hold it in open ground. Gardeners practice planting carnations in the autumn in a flowerpot so that it blooms longer, placed somewhere on the veranda.
For the period of spring frosts, young clove bushes are strongly advised to cover, even if it is a winter-hardy variety. Adult spring bushes are well tolerated, but for the winter they need to be covered with lutrosil or lapnik. When the frosts end, the shelter will need to be removed.
Diseases and possible pests of cloves
In order not to harm the plants, experts do not recommend planting cloves near any variety of tulips. They can give her their diseases, which will lead to the death of not only flowers, but also the entire seedling. But if you use the means to treat the diseases obtained, then the tender types of tulips will not stand this. This is the most significant warning for beginners and experienced amateur gardeners.
Cloves are exposed to hazards such as:
- insect pests.
You can avoid such problems with the plant if you periodically check for pests in the form of diseases or insects.
Constant waterlogging of the soil can provoke the appearance of a fungus. A similar situation can be solved by enriching, loosening the soil and controlling its condition.
Scientists have found one feature of garden cloves - it does not tolerate constant noise, so it is recommended to place seedlings away from roads, garages or areas with the presence of often occurring loud noises.
Growing flowers in the garden (video)
Varietal cloves well perceive feeding humus. When the carnation fades, flower stalks should be cut off by 12-18 centimeters, and the plant should be fertilized with mineral fertilizers (preferably complex), good watering, it is worth loosening the soil. Then, after a month, the repair plant can bloom again. The bush will delight the gardener's eye for an average of 4-6 years.