Existing varieties of roses were obtained by crossing and breeding several varieties of wild rose hips, due to which they are characterized by relative unpretentiousness. However, in order to obtain a plentifully flowering and healthy decorative plant in the country or in the garden, garden roses need to be properly looked after, especially in early spring, which will allow the culture to quickly recover after winter.
Care for rose bushes in the spring is the competent and timely conduct of such activities as pruning, fertilizing, mulching, spraying from diseases and pests. Also, for some varieties of decorative culture, spring installation of supporting structures and tying of the aerial part of the rose may be required.
How and when to open bushes after winter
In most cases, rose bushes are very thermophilic, but there are some species that grow well in harsh climatic conditions. Proper care of rose bushes after the winter period begins with the timely removal of a protective shelter. The timing of this event should be determined as correctly as possible, which will prevent the defeat of shoots in late spring frosts or aging.
As a rule, experienced flower growers remove the shelter after stable-positive temperature indicators are established and all snow mass is completely gone. It is recommended to gradually remove the shelter, starting with daily airing of rose bushes for several hours. To completely remove the shelter is possible only after a full heating of the soil to a depth of half a bayonet bayonet. During the first week after removal of the shelter, it is desirable to shade the bushes with agrofiber, garden tents or a special shading film.
At the next stage, after sufficient drying of the soil, the rose bushes are carefully re-bent, after which a thorough but shallow loosening of the soil around the bushes is performed, which is designed to improve the air supply to the root system of the overwintered plant. In the same period, it may be necessary to establish supports, as well as to fix the shoots of climbing roses on trellis structures.
Care for old bushes
Overwintered adult ornamental plants should be carefully examined. Old bushes should be freed as carefully as possible from all dried up, affected by diseases or pests, weakened and frostbitten shoots that need to be cut below the affected area. It is very important to remove all shoots below the vaccination. Such an event becomes mandatory on old rose bushes and helps prevent the decorative culture from running wild.
For old rose bushes, regardless of species, as well as for plants grown on problematic soils, including sandstones, the use of fertilizer solutions for root top dressing is ineffective, therefore it is recommended to give preference to foliar top dressing, which quickly bring nutrients to the aerial part and root system of decorative culture.
Soil mulching is very effective. after the root dressing of rose bushes. Such an event helps to preserve soil moisture, significantly improves air exchange, and also perfectly slows the growth of weeds. The mulching procedure reduces the need for loosening, which is very important in the autumn. As a mulch, compost or shredded tree bark should be used.
Care of seedlings after planting
Immediately after planting, pink seedlings should be provided with high-quality irrigation measures, water warmed up in the sun. Watering is carried out in the evening or morning hours. When watering, it is necessary to direct a stream of water directly under the root of the plant. Do not allow the blurring of the root system and the ingress of drops on the aerial part of the plant. Daily irrigation measures are necessary for rose seedlings until they are fully rooted, after which the frequency of irrigation should be guided by the condition of the soil, but most often carried out weekly.
After watering, it is recommended to carry out shallow and very accurate loosening of the soil until the onset of significant cooling, after which it is advisable to compact the soil above the root system of the rose. If the seedlings are planted in the spring, then pruning is done in advance. When autumn planting, pruning is not recommended after planting. It is best to postpone bush formation until next spring. The buds formed in the first summer after planting must be removed, which will allow the plant to grow stronger and develop correctly.
Roses: After Winter Care
Spring spraying rules
In the early spring, after winter rest, not only decorative cultures wake up, but also plant parasites, as well as pathogens of various diseases of the rose. The most suitable time for the prophylactic treatment of rose bushes is considered to be the period when the plant enters the phase of active growth of the vegetative mass.
In the spring, after removing the winter shelter, it is necessary to conduct an audit of the decorative plantings and carefully examine the rose bushes for damage by pathogenic microflora or damage by pests. During this period, the use of special chemicals shows maximum effectiveness. For spring processing, a solution based on "Copper sulfate" in a concentration of 1% or 3% is very well proven. It should be sprayed not only the aerial part of the plant, but also the soil around the rose bushes.
To prevent damage to the decorative culture by pests, it is recommended to use such preparations as Fitoverm, Insecticide or Karbofos for processing the aerial parts. In the future, plants can be sprayed with a soap solution, as well as a solution based on iron or copper sulfate and nettle infusion with the addition of a small amount of hot pepper.
Features of spring pruning
Competent spring care for rose bushes necessarily includes high-quality pruning:
- approximately in mid-April, it is necessary to remove frozen and broken shoots from plants;
- cutting off shoots to live buds, an extremely symmetrical and beautiful rose bush should be formed;
- almost all varieties of tea-hybrid roses form blooms on the growths of the current year, therefore, strong pruning is performed with the removal of old shoots;
- to get the most abundant flowering of floribunda, it is necessary to carry out combined pruning in the first year for 3-5 buds, and in subsequent years - for a third;
- shoots of floribunda cultivars, whose age exceeds three years, must be cut completely;
- when pruning large-flowered climbing roses blooming at last year’s growth, only shoots older than five years are removed;
- trimming of the rambler is carried out by a cut after flowering, by the “ring” method, with the removal of all old or weak shoots;
- during the formation of the scrub, young branches are cut by one third of the length with the obligatory removal of shoots thickening the bush;
- for standard rose varieties, it is preferable to use light pruning and removal of all shoots frozen during the winter period to a healthy, viable bud.
A significant part of the early flowering rose varieties, including English and park varieties, must be pruned in April, even before the buds open. Varieties related to tea-hybrid, climbing and soil-covering roses should be cut in May, immediately after blooming.
Pruning must be carried out exclusively with a sharp and clean, pre-disinfected, garden tool. Sreblyatsya above a kidney facing out, at a distance of a centimeter. The standard tilt angle can be approximately 45 °. After trimming, all sections of the cuts must be lubricated with garden varieties, which will prevent the penetration of infection.
Spring feeding and watering
After the spring pruning is completed, it is necessary to feed the rose bushes with fertilizers with a fairly high nitrogen content. Most often during this period, top dressing is carried out by "Aquarium", "Kemira-universal" or "Aquamix". Liquid fertilizers are best absorbed at the rate of three to four liters of solution per plant. When applying dry fertilizers, you should focus on the consumption of 35-40 g per square meter.
A very good result is the joint spring application of organics and granular mineral fertilizers. As an organic top dressing, it is recommended to use rotted manure, humus, or bird droppings with the addition of a small amount of wood ash.
How to plant roses
At the stage of formation of young shoots, it is advisable to feed the rose bushes with solutions based on fermented herbal infusions or rotted manure. Each fertilizer application must be accompanied by high-quality and most plentiful watering, which will improve the penetration of nutrients into the root system of the decorative culture.