Plants

All about apricots: from variety selection to harvest


Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) - a plant with a pleasant aroma and presented in various varieties and forms. The culture is thermophilic, its fruits are of great nutritional value.

Biological features

In the process of evolution, apricot acquired a number of biological features. The culture is light and heat-loving, which means that with rare plantings it will grow poorly, and the lower branches will dry out. Strong thickening should not be allowed, otherwise there will be a chance of infection with fungal diseases.

In nature, apricot grows in the mountains. That is why it is not demanding on the type of soil, but needs good air exchange. The culture is resistant to soil salinization. The fruiting of the plant occurs on the 4th year. The culture is self-and cross-pollinated.

Popular varieties

There are many varieties of apricot, with their own advantages and disadvantages. Consider the main varieties of plants.

Early ripe varieties

Early ripening varieties ripen in late June. They are characterized by attractive appearance and good taste of the fruit. Plants are undemanding to care and ambient temperature.

Grade nameKey FeaturesFruit CharacteristicsResistance to disease and weather
Badem EricEarly Armenian variety, fruiting for the 5th yearThe taste is satisfactory, the fruits are large, almond-shaped, yellowLow resistance to frost and disease
"Nakhichevan Red" (Nakhichevanskii)Fruits in the 3rd year, early floweringFruits do not tolerate drying and transportation, medium, yellow-orange, juicyWeak resistance to gray rot
"Early Melitopol" (Melitopolskijj)Crown cone-shaped, tall tree, requires timely pruningLarge, oval, yellow-orangeIt tolerates winter well, is resistant to disease
"Alliance"The variety gives a good harvest, universal in applicationOblong fruits weighing up to 55 grams, yellow, sour tasteWinter hardiness is high
AleshaThe crown is round, the height of the tree is up to 4 meters, the apricot gives a good harvestMedium fruits, slightly flattened, with dotsTolerates winter well
"Leskore" (Leskore)Tall and massive tree, crown in the form of an inverted pyramidFragrant and deliciousSuffering from Moniliosis
"Veteran of Sevastopol" (Veteran Sevastopolja)Viable grade with good yieldsFruits are large - up to 85 grams, golden pinkTolerates frost well

Mid-season species

Mid-ripening varieties ripen in July. In most of them, the fruits are universal in use, the harvest from the trees is mostly annual. The resistance of the varieties to low temperatures is good.

Grade nameKey Features

Fruit Characteristics

Resistance to disease and weather
Olympus (Olimp)The variety quickly ripens and tolerates transportation, storage of fruits is longBumpy, weighs about 70 grams, orange-pink, sweet and sourNot afraid of heat and drought, disease resistance is not bad
AltairThe tree gives a harvest every year, the use of fruits is universalRounded, weighing 55 grams, orangeExcellent disease resistance
The Red-Cheeked (Krasnoshekijj)Ripens in late July, the tree is tall, fruiting in the 3rd yearFruit weight up to 50 grams, golden color, sweet tasteTolerates winter and drought well
Pineapple (Ananasnyj)Crohn rounded, sparse, regular fruitingFruits weighing up to 50 grams, orange blossom, medium juicinessDisease resistant, frost resistant
"Dessert"Ripens in mid-June, lush crown, tree height 5 metersThe fruits are medium, yellowish, sweet and sourWinter hardiness is excellent
Goldrich (Goldrich)The variety is characterized by high productivity, tolerates transportation well.Fruits are large - weighing 90 grams, oval, orangeWinter hardiness is average
"Shalah" (Shalah)Gives fruit for the 4th year, high productivity, plentiful floweringFruit weight up to 65 grams, sweet taste, velvet peelAt temperatures up to
-19 degrees does not freeze

Late ripening varieties

Late-ripening varieties ripen in late summer. In spring, plants do not suffer from frost, and the fruits are well stored at low temperatures.

Grade nameKey FeaturesFruit CharacteristicsResistance to disease and weather
Favorite (Favorit)The height of the tree reaches 4 meters, the flowers are whiteFruits up to 35 grams, round, orange, juicyExcellent frost resistance
PeyvastReproduction is carried out by grafting and seeds, bears fruit in the 4th year of lifeThe fruits are large, good yieldHigh disease resistance
"Late canning" (Pozdnyi konservnyii)Productivity is high, the variety does not require careful maintenance, tolerates transportation wellBeautiful, large fruits of golden colorMedium disease resistance
"Kursadyk"Fruits in the 4th year, the crop is regularThe fruits are often used in dried form, medium size, oval shapeResistance to fungi
Late Red-Cheeked (Pozdnyi Krasnoshekijj)Productivity is high, self-fertile, average tree heightLarge, rounded, light orange, sweetMedium disease resistance
IsfarakDried fruit variety, ripening later, often fruits are processed on dried apricotsRounded, yellowishMedium Disease Resistance
IskraThe tree can reach a height of 4 meters, the flowers are whiteFruits weighing up to 30 grams, juicy, stored wellNot susceptible to disease, withstands frosts down to -36 degrees

Landing Features

In the northern areas, it is recommended to plant apricot in the spring, in the southern - in the fall. As a material, it is better to use a seedling from the nursery, as it will take root well. The place is selected based on the following criteria:

  • good lighting;
  • wind protection;
  • lack of cold air.

Soil must be produced. Landing is carried out to a depth of about 60 centimeters. The best option is to place the apricot in light loamy soil.

Apricot: planting and care

How to care

Apricot can not be called a frost-resistant plant. But some of its varieties can withstand frosts to -38 degrees. It is important that the plant is not affected by sudden changes in temperature, since the root of the neck is weak.

Fertilizer application

To fertilize apricot should be at the end of the dormant period. If the soil is poor, it is worth enriching it with humus. In the spring, organic matter and nitrogen substances are introduced.

It is important to feed potassium in a timely manner. If the element does not come to the apricot in the right amount, the plant will begin to age quickly and will soon die. A good option is the introduction of complex fertilizers containing boron, manganese and potassium.

How to water

Watering apricot in the middle latitudes should be regular. If the plant does not have enough water in early summer, the buds will not form, which means that there will be no crop. From the second half of summer, watering is carried out sparingly - in the dry season. Excessive moisture will result in prolonged shoot growth.

Basic pruning rules

Apricot fruiting is carried out on annual growths, bouquet branches and spurs. Over time, skeletal branches begin to become bare, resulting in reduced yield. Since the kidneys are mainly located on annual shoots, apricot pruning should be done in a timely manner in order to create new branches. The trimming time is the end of May - the beginning of June.

What to make a tree grow better? Follow the basic rules of its cultivation.

  1. The variety must be selected based on the region where you live.
  2. It is better to choose an already grown young tree. Growing from seeds will take a long time.
  3. For a small plot, it is better to choose a dwarf tree.
  4. When purchasing a seedling with an open root system, it is worth choosing a two-year plant.
  5. Choose a warm place for the apricot, protected from the wind. It is best to plant it against the wall.
  6. Do not plant pepper, strawberries and eggplant near the crop - they are sources of verticillum wilting.

Plant Prevention

With early snowfall, the apricot root neck may vanish. To prevent aging, periodically remove snow from the trunk circle. After the soil freezes, the trunk circle, on the contrary, is covered with snow, while the root neck should remain uncovered.

A good effect is obtained by whitewashing lime and clay boles and skeletal branches. Whitewash the plants in the fall. If the tree has frostbitten areas, they are treated with a solution of iron sulfate.

Apricot Sap Prevention

In winter, apricot branches may dry out under the influence of wind. As a result, the buds may not bloom, and the branches will begin to die. To prevent the problem, snow retainers should be placed near the plant in winter, plant varieties resistant to wind, and irrigated in autumn. If the apricot has affected branches, they should be pruned, but only after the onset of the tree growth stage.

Apricot propagation methods

As a rule, apricot propagation is carried out vegetatively. Seedlings of winter-hardy small-fruited apricot varieties are taken as rootstocks. Cherry plum should not be taken as a stock.

Rootstocks are grown from seeds taken from healthy fruits. Seeds must be stratified, and they are sown in early spring. Grow stocks will be 2 years.

An important stage in the propagation of apricot is budding. It is a vaccination with a wintering kidney with a small patch of tissue - the shield. They carry out budding in July. The height of the budding is 4 centimeters above the ground.

So that stocks do not freeze in winter, they are tied with paper. In the spring, using a secateurs, a part of the stocks is cut above the ground and the strapping is removed. Even one-year-old seedlings are suitable for planting in the garden, but it is recommended to choose two-year-old planting material, as it takes root more quickly.

Diseases and pests of apricot

Apricot is often exposed to infections and pests. And, if you do not save him on time, you can lose the crop. The right approach is the timely implementation of preventive measures that will prevent the plant from getting sick.

How to recognize and fight diseases

Often apricot suffers from damage to fruits, leaves and skeletal branches. Of the diseases, he may appear cytosporosis, moniliosis, bacterial cancer and other ailments. How to recognize and cure them, the table will tell.

Disease nameMain signsTreatment methods
Verticillium (Verticillium)Branches begin to fade, leaves turn yellow and crumble. The disease often affects young plants.Affected branches are removed, soil waterlogging should not be allowed and large doses of nitrogen fertilizers should not be applied
Necrotic spottingViral disease that prevents the fruits from forming correctly; gum forms on the trunk

Only healthy planting material must be used.

Curl of leaves (Taphrina deformans var. Armeniaca)Fungal disease characterized by twisted shoots and leaf deformationCopper Spraying
Brown Spotting (Septoria pallens Sacc)The fruits, leaves and shoots are affected. Yellow spots appear on the leaves, then the leaves dry out and curl.Removal of affected leaves, spraying with Bordeaux fluid
Infectious Shrinkage (Cytospora leucostoma)Accompanied by peeling and dying off of the bark of branchesIt is necessary to remove damaged branches, spray the tree with Bordeaux liquid, carry out disinfection with lime
Moniliosis (Monilia)Causes death of fruits and flowers; healthy fruits become infected from diseased fruitsCollection and destruction of infected fruits, spraying with Bordeaux liquid.
Kleasterosporiosis (Clasterosporium carpoplilum Aderh.)The buds, fruits and leaves are affected. Reddish spots form on them.

Bordeaux fluid is sprayed with kidneys in spring

How to get rid of pests

The main pests of apricots are: codling moth (Grapholita funebrana)leaflet (Tortricidae or Olethreutidae) and aphids (Aphidinea). Caterpillars of the codling moth spoil the fruit. In preparation for winter, they weave cocoons and attach to the plant. Leafworm caterpillars eat foliage and buds. Aphids feed on leaf juice.

You can get rid of pests by using insecticides. Bring out aphids will get tincture of garlic. Moths are afraid of a mixture of a solution of entobacterin and chlorophos. The leafworm will go away if the tree trunk is whitewashed.

Maintenance work

Compliance with the following measures will help prevent the emergence of pests:

  1. It is necessary to timely remove the diseased parts of the plant.
  2. Collect fallen fruits and destroy them.
  3. If necessary, wood is treated with lime.
  4. In autumn, the tree trunk should be protected from sunburn.
  5. It is necessary to comply with all the rules of agricultural technology.

How to prune apricots in spring

Proper apricot cultivation begins with the right choice of seedling or seed. An important role for the cultivation of a tree is played by its location, watering, pruning and fertilizing. To get a good harvest, you will have to make a lot of effort, but the result is worth it.