Dogwood is one of the genera of the dogwood or derain family, which includes several dozen species. Under natural conditions, they choose a temperate zone for growth: the Far East, Europe, Siberia, North America, and the north of China. Shrubs of this kind are particularly decorative, often used in landscape design, used in landscaping. It received this property due to the many corymbose inflorescences, dense foliage on the shoots, and the plant is also known for its unpretentiousness and easy propagation. There is even one edible species of this plant - male derain.
The most widespread species in culture is white derain, also sometimes referred to as white swine. In nature, it lives among shrubs in the north and east of the Russian European part, along the banks of streams and rivers of the Far East and Eastern Siberia. This shrub reaches 3 m in height, has many branches, has thin erect red-brown and coral-red shoots. Young bark has a bluish coating and bright color. The leaves on the branches are opposite, have a dark green color, slightly bluish white below and covered with hairs on both sides. The leaves of the shrub have an elliptical or broad-egg shape. At first glance, they seem a little wrinkled due to embossed venation. Flowering shrubs and fruiting occurs in 3-4 years of life of derain and begins in May-June. Its yellow-white flowers are collected in corymbose inflorescences. The shrub is especially decorative in the autumn period at a time when its leaves become violet-red or purplish-red. The shrub grows very quickly the first 13-15 years, and after growth slows down and dies. The shrub at this time becomes darker, and the red color remains exclusively on young shoots.
This species is also widespread due to its winter hardiness and frost resistance, not picky about the shade, perfectly adapts to the conditions of the city. It grows remarkably on any post, although it is more favorable to moistened sandy loam. During prolonged drought, the leaves fade, but as soon as the humidity rises, they recover. It is unpretentiousness and unique decorative properties that contribute to the use of shrubs in landscaping since 1741. It is ideal for large free groups, for hedges. Propagate white derain by layering, cuttings, root offspring, seeds. Sometimes aphids can be slightly damaged, but it is well pruned.
Derain blood red
Somewhat less common in landscape design is Svidin blood red (derain blood red). The natural habitat is the European part of Russia, the Carpathians, Scandinavia, and the Caucasus. Prefers forest edges, moist places near lakes and rivers. In such conditions, the shrub reaches 3-4 m, has flexible shoots of green, but with a reddish tinge with age. He also has bright, green ovoid leaves that are covered with hairs. At the end of the month of May, corymbose inflorescences bloom. Flowering occurs every year, starting from seven years, and lasts two weeks. Sometimes in August there is a second flowering.
The fruits ripen in the fall, while the leaves acquire a really bloody red hue.
This shrub is also well adapted to urban conditions, winter-hardy, tolerates drought, shade, but gives preference to moist sandy loam or fresh loose loam. It is very quickly restored after a haircut. Shrubs are also used for other purposes: baskets and hoops are woven from its shoots, wood is used for the manufacture of carpentry. The oil available in the seeds is used for technical purposes. Shrub is a good soil fixer, because it has many root offspring. Therefore, it is often planted in hedges and on slopes.
Other types of derain
Deren has a regular leaf, otherwise called a common svidina, which has good indicators of resistance to winter conditions even in Central Russia. In Moscow, the height of the bush reaches one and a half meters, initially its shoots are green. After changing the color to red-brown.
Equally unpretentious to winter conditions is the North American species of offspring derain, which lives in thickets of shrubs along ponds and rivers, as well as in moist forests. In appearance, it is similar to white turf. The bush blooms at 4-5 years of age with milky-white flowers, its fruits are bluish-reddish. The bush propagates by root shoots, cuttings, seeds, layering.
Other North American species have no less good winter hardiness: Bailein, fragrant, oblique, racemose.
Much less winter-hardy are species such as Coase derain, Canadian derain and flowering derain.
Blooming derain, otherwise - blooming bentamidia, grows in eastern North America. This shrub loves warmth, in natural conditions grows up to 6 m. The leaves are elliptical in shape, small flowers gather in an inflorescence, which is surrounded by large bracts. In Coase's bentamidia, 4 large white bracts and small yellow-green flowers are observed. The leaves of the bush are elliptical in shape, dark green in color, but slightly bluish green below, and in the fall they acquire a bright yellow color. The fruits of Coase's bentamidia are juicy, scarlet fruits, edible and with a tart taste. Canadian bentamidia lives not only in Canada, but also in China, the Far East, Russia, Japan. This species in Moscow in winter survives due to snow cover. If the winter is snowless, then the shrub can suffer greatly from frost.
Many East Asian species, most often from China (medicinal derain, Walter's derain) are not resistant to frost. And even if they are sheltered in the winter, they still die, surviving only in the botanical gardens of Moscow State University.
Any kind of derain propagates vegetatively. Its cuttings are rooted in greenhouses under glass in washed sand, which is poured with a 3-5 cm layer onto a substrate of sod mixture, or, alternatively, sand with humus. Before planting a shrub, the soil must be well watered. Cuttings are planted at an angle of 45 degrees at 5 cm depth in the ground. Boxes are placed in greenhouses and hotbeds, and to protect from sunlight, it is advised to cover the glass with shields or whiten. During rooting in a greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of + 20-25 degrees Celsius. Also, one must not forget about the increased humidity, which is maintained by spraying with water and using a fogging plant. By autumn, the plants form strong and strong roots, which allows them to be planted in the ground. But in the first winter, derain should be covered with spruce branches and a leaf.
Terrain use in the landscape
Many varieties of derain are used as material for creating hedges. To do this, they land next to each other and, growing up, create a high and dense wall. Thanks to it, the air is filled with freshness and pleasant aroma, protection against dust and wind is formed. A very spectacular and decorative hedge is formed from white derain, the special beauty of which is given by its variegated varieties with bright shoots. They are easily and well trimmed and grow back very quickly.
If you select a shrub for your site, then special attention should be paid to the possibility of combining this plant and other decorative species: flowering time, decorative properties, appearance, tolerance of certain conditions, size.