Date palm (Phoenix) is not grown too often at home. The tropical plant belongs to the Palm family (Arecaceae), and due to its botanical features when growing at home, it needs competent and quality care at all stages of growth and development.
Botanical description of a houseplant
A representative of the genus may be a tree or squat shrub. The leaves are pinnately separate, long, with strong and sharp thorns. A significant part of the species is represented by single-stem trees, but there are also species that have several trunks. Flowers of small sizes, yellow, collected in panicle-type inflorescences. Dioecious plant.
How dates grow and a tree looks in vivo
In natural conditions, dates or date palms grow in the presence of a full sunny day and do not tolerate shading at all. The homeland is the southern regions of Iran, as well as the territory of ancient Mesopotamia and northern Africa. Many species grow on the Arabian Peninsula.
Exotic trees often become a real decoration of the landscape in waterless territories and look especially impressive in desert areas. In height, the tree often reaches 25-35 m, with a stem width of 0.8 m with six-meter cirrus leaves. In the natural environment, the plant propagates vegetatively, by means of young shoots appearing at the foot of the plant. After flowering, fruits are formed that are low enough, which greatly facilitates their collection.
How to grow a date palm from a stone at home
Growing an adult ornamental plant from seed will not be difficult for both experienced and beginner gardeners. For planting, seeds obtained from dates that were not subjected to heat treatment are suitable. Growing a room date palm from seeds is as follows:
- the bones are freed from the fruit pulp, washed and slightly dried;
- clean and dried bones for a couple of days are placed in water at room temperature and kept in the sun;
- water is replaced at least three times a day;
- To accelerate germination, it is recommended to rub the surface of the seeds with fine sandpaper and again immerse them in warm water.
Swollen seeds need to be planted in pre-prepared and disinfected nutrient soil.
Bone Date Palm
Date palm: how to grow and care for a plant
Sprouting seeds and growing a healthy plant is sometimes quite difficult. Properly prepared seeds should be planted strictly upright, sprinkled with soil a little. To sprout appeared as early as possible - a film cover is installed or on top of the landing is a layer of moss-sphagnum. Culture is growing relatively slowly, but it is necessary to properly care for the culture at all stages of development.
To maintain a date palm, you need to allocate a bright and sunny place in a well-ventilated and sufficient area. The temperature in the summer can be almost any, but in winter, the thermometer should be between 12-18ºC.
On too hot days, perennial leaves may dry out at the ends, so it is recommended to spray the aerial parts several times a day or replace this procedure by wiping the leaves with a damp sponge. About once a week you need to organize showers for a palm tree, covering the soil with a film. In the summer, the date palm can be taken out to balconies or loggias.
Soil and planting requirements
The flower pot should be small in diameter, but high enough, due to the developed root system. The soil should be loose and soft. It is advisable to use a mixture based on turf and sheet land, with the addition of peat and medium-grained sand. The plant needs good and high drainage.
What and when to feed
To get a healthy ornamental plant, it must be fed in the spring and summer. Organic and mineral fertilizers are applied weekly, and in the fall, perennials need to be fertilized once every couple of weeks, combining this event with watering.
In winter, perennial exotics need additional nutrition, but if necessary, high-quality complex fertilizers are applied no more than once a month.
Watering and loosening
Date palms belong to the category of hygrophilous indoor plants, therefore, you need to water the culture in the summer quite often, at least a couple of times a week. For irrigation, only well-maintained room temperature water is used. Irrigation measures are performed after the top layer has dried.
Watering must be supplemented by spraying. However, stagnant water in the pan can be detrimental to a perennial indoor, and very often becomes a cause of disease.
How to grow a date palm
Correct and timely transplantation of a houseplant is a guarantee of preserving the decorativeness of a date palm for many years. Transplanting a perennial plant into a larger flower pot in the first five years of life is desirable every year. Older specimens are transplanted with a flower pot replacement every three years.
Plants older than fifteen years old need a transplant no more than once every five years. To inhibit the growth of the aerial part, you can periodically pinch the top.
The rules for transplanting decorative perennial exotics are as follows:
- transplantation should be carried out extremely carefully and carefully, which minimizes the risk of damage to the root system;
- experienced amateur gardeners who grow date palm trees in indoor floriculture for many years recommend replanting the crop using a method of transshipment of the root system with an earthen lump;
- planting capacity for growing heat-loving exotics should be deep enough, due to the sufficiently long and well-developed roots;
- when choosing a new flower pot, you need to remember that its dimensions should be approximately 35-45 mm larger than the diameter of the previous planting capacity;
- It is very important to provide the culture with a high-quality drainage layer, which prevents moisture stagnation after watering in the soil near the root system.
It is often not recommended to transplant very adult and massive palm trees, therefore if there is no need to provide the plant with a more voluminous flower pot, only the topsoil in the flowerpot is replaced. Such an event can be performed a couple of times a year.
Indoor date palms are quite capricious plants, capable of very "violently" reacting to any temperature changes and adverse external factors. To prevent the occurrence of diseases, it is necessary to provide high-quality and competent care. But not less it is important to be able to recognize the disease on time and correctly, to know the main reasons provoking their occurrence, and also to apply the entire amount of necessary measures.
The most common plant parasites:
- red spider mites belong to the most dangerous and difficult to remove pests of indoor decorative crops that spread in conditions of high temperature and dry air. With a massive lesion, a fully cobweb plant dies;
- mealybugs able to strongly inhibit the growth and development of the plant, covering it with a web-like white coating;
- thrips they affect the plant in large groups, after which the foliage turns yellow, dries and falls, and the indoor tree itself dies.
A variety of viruses, as well as bacterial and fungal microflora, can become the cause of diseases. The defeat is accompanied by a loss of decorativeness, as well as a change in the state of the aerial part and the root system. Often comes the death of the plant. In order to destroy plant parasites and pathogenic pathogenic microflora, five-fold spraying with five-fold spraying with an aqueous solution based on the preparations Pyrethrum, Actellik, Fosfamide, Fitoverm or Fozalon is used. For preventive purposes, it is recommended to carry out chemical treatment with chemical preparations twice a year.
How to transplant a date palm
When growing heat-loving exotics, one must remember that the point of growth of the date palm is located in the apical part of the trunk, so there is no need to form its crown. A plant in indoor floriculture does not bear fruit. As a rule, at home, this perennial culture grows rather slowly, so its height rarely exceeds two meters.