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Chinese camellia is the name of the famous tea bush. The perennial bush is gaining popularity. It becomes a decorative decoration of the apartment and the garden. Beautiful flowers are perceived, thanks to literary works, as a symbol of romance, mystery and tenderness.
Botanical description of the tea bush (Chinese camellia)
Chinese camellia is outwardly similar to tea plants, of which there are more than 200 species, but the bush has its own distinctive features. Camellia formed in Yunnan more than 70 thousand years ago. The family has two botanical subspecies:
- Actually Chinese, sinensis sinensis;
- Assamese (statewide in India).
Subspecies have their own characteristics, but can interbreed. Sinensis is a shrub, it is low and has small leaflets.
Description of the bush:
- leaves are elliptical with pointed jagged edges;
- foliage color is dark green;
- to the touch, the sheet is similar to the skin;
- the length of the sheet plate is 7 cm;
- width - 4 cm.
The color of the green changes gradually, the young leaves are pale, then they begin to darken. Camellia flowers are modest and less vibrant than those of the Japanese species. They are formed in pairs. Corollas are white or slightly pink, the middle protrudes in the center. At the place of the ovary, a box is formed in which 3 sashes. Seeds are large, ripen slowly and closer to winter.
In the first year, the bush grows to 30 cm. Then it becomes lower, diverges in volumes.
Flowering begins in the second year. Abundant flowering occurs in cool periods:
- late fall;
- early spring.
The shape and appearance are similar to roses. Harvesting leaves for tea is recommended after 5 years. The plant is a long-lived, it can become a friend to the owner for several decades.
Varieties of camellias
Locations of Chinese Camellia
The homeland of camellia is Indochina, tropical and subtropical forests. Archaeologists have found evidence of the use of tea from the leaves of shrubs more than 5 thousand years ago. China is considered the first country to give the plant a cultural life and popular use. Perennial shrubs are common in India and China. The tea bush did not receive a wide halo of cultivation for several reasons:
- other bush camellias compete with the bush;
- the plant requires mandatory formation.
Patient gardeners can cultivate camellia, but patience and the desire to wait for the result of their labors are required. A house or plot will be decorated with an ornamental plant, interesting and not like other flowering shrubs. In Russia, the bush began to be found since the 19th century. Beginning of cultivation - Crimea, then the entire Krasnodar Territory.
Features of the collection and procurement of raw materials
Collect the tops of the first and second years of growth. Young shoots are called flysch. There are not many leaves on them: 3-4 pieces. The leaves are laid out on a horizontal surface and give time for drying. The material becomes soft. Then the twisting of the sheet plate begins. This is necessary for fermentation, during which the chemical composition of the tea raw material changes.
- Tea material absorbs odorous substances. Saturation and aromatization of leaves.
- The fermentation process ends with a color change. The raw material turns copper or bright red.
Drying is carried out in special equipment with hot air currents. The material turns black, it is in this form that tea falls on the shelves of outlets.
Composition and beneficial properties of green tea extract
The leaves of camellia sinensis contain trace elements and substances useful for humans:
- tannins: soluble and insoluble;
- nucleoproteins containing iron and manganese;
- free gallic acid.
- a huge amount of alkaloids;
- nicotinic and pantothenic acids;
- essential oil.
A healthy drink is one of the most popular and favorite. Its value lies in the physiological characteristics of the composition. Miracle Tea has valuable properties and healing abilities.
Active main components and their actions:
- Caffeine. Tones up and stimulates the activity of the nervous system, improves reflex function. Normalization of respiration occurs, pressure decreases. The substance helps in the removal of fats from cells, stimulates the formation of acids. A high concentration of caffeine acts as a diuretic.
- Phenolic substances. They create the basis for weight loss, normalization of body weight.
How to plant Chinese camellia seeds
The use of green tea in cosmetology
Green tea extract stud is the focus of attention of the cosmetics industry. They appreciated the ability of the drink to soften the effect of sunlight on the skin.
As an ingredient in leaf extract cosmetics
It is part of therapeutic creams, lotions, gels, shampoos, foams, masks and other cosmetics. Abilities of leaf-based cosmetic formulations:
- calms the inflamed integument;
- heals wounds and cracks in the skin;
- stimulates the production of collagen by cells;
- reduces the amount of acne;
- Dries the skin and removes excessive fat;
- cleans open pore openings, narrows them;
- protects against climate damage.
Reception of tea changes the complexion, provides comprehensive care for the scalp and strengthens the hair structure.
Chinese camellia in folk medicine
Chinese tea from camellia sinensis activates fat and lipid metabolism, reduces the amount of cholesterol. The drink makes the vessels strong and elastic. There is a delay in the aging process.
The healing abilities of camellia:
- improvement of the digestive system;
- removal of toxins from cells;
- against hypertension;
- to reduce the possibility of developing atherosclerosis;
- for the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract;
- against diarrhea;
- for the prevention of damage to tooth enamel;
- with food poisoning.
Tea is drunk to reduce body weight, especially for obesity of various degrees. Weight loss programs and courses are necessarily based on green tea. Compresses from infusions on the leaves of the bush help relieve sunburn of the skin. Another ability of sheet material is the concept of tone, a person ceases to feel weak and tired.
The cultivation of Chinese camellia
Tea plant is part of a group of unpretentious shrubs to care for. But there are still some mandatory care requirements.
Dates and rules of landing
Camellia is planted in the ground loose and saturated with organic fertilizers. Another soil requirement is an acidic environment. For soil, you can buy the finished mixture in a flower shop, several required components are added to it:
Another possible composition of the earth is soil from under coniferous species of wood. It may contain bark and needles. The Chinese bush for the summer is transferred to a balcony, which is opened for access to fresh air. If grown in dachas, then containers with camellia are taken out onto the verandas, arbors, and placed in the garden among other flower cultures.
There are several ways to propagate the shrub:
- root division.
Cuttings fit from the upper shoots. They are prepared in August with autumn pruning of the bush, preparation for the winter period. Rooted parts at the initial stage are insulated, fixed with a film or covering material.
Seeds can not only be bought at a flower shop, but obtained independently. Seed Sequence:
- Seeds are soaked, checking their quality: empty pop up. You can immediately throw them away. Good ones sink to the bottom, they are chosen for seedlings.
- Holding in hot water. The procedure for fixing the seed. Hold for several hours.
- Seeds are deepened into the holes by 3-5 cm.
- The container and boxes with seeds are covered with a film or glass for a greenhouse effect.
Features of caring for Chinese camellia
The bush loves a warm environment and bright lighting of any type:
Camellia is planted in a place where direct rays of the sun fall. In an apartment, this is most often a window sill. With bright rays, the place is changed. The hot sun can burn foliage, reduce growth.
Care is based on a series of actions:
- Regular watering with warm water. Watering is required plentiful, therefore pour a lot.
- Fertilizing with fertilizer. During the growth period, mineral fertilizers are added, during sleep and rest (winter), top dressing is not needed.
- Loosening the soil. The earth above the root system is constantly mixed, the top layer is loosened with a rake. If the bush is already an adult, you can carry out a shallow digging.
- Checking the top layer for the absence of a crust. This action is important for a young shrub. The dried layer does not allow moisture to pass through and does not allow the roots to obtain the necessary natural substances.
- Pruning. Elongated shoots, stalks that do not give leaves are removed. Remove excess shoots carefully, trying to minimize damage to the branches.
Application of Camellia Chinese oil
Chinese camellia can be left in the open at a temperature of 15 ° C, below this indicator, the bush dies or stops growing. If the weather is hot, and there is no way to place the bush plant on the street, wet processing is carried out. The foliage is sprayed with warm water. Spraying is carried out not only on the surface part, but also on the soil above the root system. An excellent choice of watering is acidic water. To preserve moisture, the soil is mulched, covered with steamed needles. Camellia can not always be in one place. It is recommended to transplant, changing soil annually. Large capacity, the final place of growth is chosen after 4 years.
Tea bush lives for a long time, its age can reach 500 years. With careful care, he will give a lot of positive emotions and will create medicinal formulations to improve physical condition, preserve youth and health.