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Growing chanterelles at home is a great way to provide a family with a tasty and healthy product for a long time. This can be done if you have patience and attention. First, you need to find out what are the features of the growth and development of these mushrooms, which include the rules of planting and care. The main difficulty lies in the fact that chanterelles belong to a variety of mycorrhizal fungi and for proper development they need an ally tree. Therefore, growing chanterelles in a box will be ineffective.
How chanterelle mushrooms reproduce
In nature, the reproduction of fungi occurs by spores - microscopic seeds, up to several microns in size. In chanterelles, like in other higher fungi, spore maturation occurs in a special spore-bearing layer located in the lower part of the cap - hymenia.
The fungus contains a huge amount of spores. Their full maturation in the cap occurs in chanterelles in about 9 days. As they mature, they fall to the ground and are carried by the wind, rain streams or forest animals. Spores caught on fertile soil germinate, releasing hyphae - long, interwoven filaments that look like mold. As the mycelium grows, the branching increases, it more and more penetrates the upper, fertile layer of the earth. By carefully lifting the forest moss, it can be seen with the naked eye.
Important! Favorable conditions for the development of mycelium are sufficient oxygen, fertile soil, warmth and moisture. Therefore, the most active growth of fungi is observed after warm summer rains.
Mycelium filaments diverge radially. It is located in the ground along the perimeter of a large circle, and the inner part gradually dies off. The rate of development of mycelium can be from 10 to 30 cm per year.
Chanterelles love acidic, well-moisturized soil. Their colonies can be found in small meadows surrounded by conifers, blueberry and birch groves. The main condition for their successful growth and development is the presence of a number of trees suitable for the formation of mycorrhiza or fungus root. Fungi need a symbiotic relationship with roots to obtain nutrients from them - carbohydrates, amino acids, phytohormones. For their part, they help the partner tree absorb moisture and minerals from the soil. Thanks to mycorrhiza, the roots of the tree acquire a large absorption surface, which facilitates their development on soil poor in microelements.
Is it possible to grow chanterelles at home
Long-term experiments of scientists have shown that it is not possible to grow chanterelles at home, but indoors, since they cannot develop without contact with the root system of trees. In addition, mushrooms need warmth, high humidity, acidic soil composition with a sufficient amount of humus. Growing chanterelles in a garden area surrounded by coniferous, oak or birch trees, subject to technology, will be effective. Fruit trees are not suitable for cultivation.
Growing chanterelles at home may seem unprofitable for beginners. Having recreated the conditions as close as possible to natural conditions, it is possible to achieve the development of mycelium. In this case, the family will be provided with delicious mushrooms throughout the season. But it is not worth hoping for large yields, like those obtained when growing mushrooms or oyster mushrooms.
Features of growing chanterelles in the garden
The main condition necessary for growing chanterelles in the country is the presence of at least one coniferous or deciduous tree. These can be forest or decorative species. If they are not on the site, you can purchase seedlings. Chanterelle plantations are planted in the immediate vicinity of partner trees. You should choose a place that is shady and humid enough, at the same time, having access to the sun's rays. The established mycelium will grow in breadth, so it is necessary to organize free space for it.
After the place for growing chanterelles has been chosen, you should prepare everything you need for further work:
- planting material;
- surface turf;
- covering material (moss, fallen leaves, needles);
- water for irrigation.
Growing chanterelle mushrooms at home is a laborious and lengthy process. You need to know that it will be possible to harvest the first crop not earlier than in a year.
How to choose planting material
After selecting a tree suitable for growing chanterelles, it is necessary to choose the right planting material. This is done while in the forest. They are looking for a healthy tree around which a family of chanterelles grows: this means that its root system is intertwined with fungal mycelium and forms mycorrhiza. From such a tree, planting material is collected. It is necessary to comply with the prerequisite for growing chanterelles at home: the forest tree must be of the same type as the tree on the site. It will be much easier for the mycelium to take root next to the "acquaintance"
There are two ways to propagate chanterelles for growing at home:
- Spores (use the caps of ripe chanterelles or spore infusion).
- Mycelium (buy ready-made mycelium or use parts of the surface soil containing mycelium filaments).
The method of introducing parts of the surface soil containing mycelium into the soil has a long preparatory period (from 12 to 15 months). But for growing chanterelles at home, it is the most reliable. Its efficiency is almost 100%. Such a soil is rich in humus, containing all the nutrients and elements of the tree roots that contribute to the formation of the fungus root. With the right preparation, it will be a kind of forest island - a habitual environment for mushrooms, suitable for growing at home.
Advice! You can dig a small Christmas tree in the forest along with the mycelium and plant it on your site. This method of growing chanterelles at home is even more reliable.
How to plant chanterelles in the country
Planting begins in early summer, immediately after the establishment of warm weather. For several days, they prepare: they abundantly moisten the soil in the area of future plantings by adding a strong infusion of oak bark to the water for irrigation. It disinfects the ground, creates a good microclimate for growing mycelium.
Before starting the selection of planting material, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are weighed:
Chanterelle spores for planting
Achieving the development of mycelium, chanterelle spores infect the roots of a tree growing on the site - the future symbiont. For this, an aqueous infusion of spores is prepared. Previously, a tree is selected in the forest, around which there are already colonies of chanterelles. Caps are cut off from overripe specimens. Then proceed as follows:
- The collected caps are soaked for a day in slightly sweetened water (50 g of granulated sugar are taken for 10 liters of water).
- The soaked mushrooms are pounded, the resulting solution is carefully filtered through cheesecloth.
- In the area where the chanterelles will be planted, the topsoil is removed.
- The soil is disinfected, thoroughly spilled with a thick solution of oak bark, and left for a day.
- Evenly moisten the area with the resulting solution of mushroom spores using a watering can.
- The remaining pulp of the mushrooms is distributed from above and sprinkled with the earth removed earlier.
- For better development of mycelium, the area is regularly watered. To avoid washing out the spores, watering is applied along the tree trunk.
The first mushrooms on the home plantation can be expected next summer.
Chanterelle mycelium for planting
Another method is propagation by mushroom filaments - mycelium. This planting material can be purchased in specialized stores in powder form. You can grow mushrooms in the country from the mycelium, recruited by yourself. Do this next to the selected forest tree - a symbiont. Dig up parts of the top layer of the earth in a forest area, up to 15 cm thick.Further actions are as follows:
- Plots of land are placed in individual containers and stored for about a year in a cool place, providing oxygen access.
- Mycorrhiza gradually develops, strengthens and becomes more viable.
- A year later, at the beginning of summer, they start planting and growing.
- Around the tree growing on the site, holes are dug up to 20 cm deep. In each, a fertile forest layer with developed mycelium is placed and tamped.
- All wells and areas around them are thoroughly watered. Top covered with fertile sod from under a coniferous tree.
- It is necessary to ensure that the mycelium is protected from the cold in the winter.
- Water the plantation regularly, make sure that the land is well moistened.
The first harvest can be expected next year after laying the mycelium in the ground.
Fruiting bodies of chanterelles for planting
Chanterelles can be grown by propagating them with fruit bodies or caps of old mushrooms with mature spores. To do this, take the largest mushrooms, collecting them together with a small amount of soil litter. The caps are cut off and placed in the sun, waiting for withering. In the planned place, the upper fertile part of the soil is removed so that the roots of the tree are partially exposed. Place the prepared hats and cover them with the removed sod. Water thoroughly and leave to germinate, making sure the soil is moist.
After 2 - 3 weeks after planting, you can see how the mycelium develops. To do this, you need to raise the top layer of sod. Long greenish threads penetrating the soil indicate that the mycelium has taken root and is developing normally. The mycelium should develop at rest; there is no need to dig up the soil. The forest grass that grows above the mycelium provides additional protection.
How to grow chanterelles at home
Caring for a home mycelium is to create optimal conditions for its development. This is timely watering, protection from diseases, correct harvesting.
Mycelium care begins in the preparatory period. It is important that the planting is carried out in fertile soil. To do this, you need to dig up the site by adding organic fertilizer to it. In addition, to grow chanterelles at home, it is important to know the following:
- When choosing a partner tree, you should pay attention to young specimens. Their root system is still undeveloped, which means that they consume only part of the nutrients from the soil, sharing with fungi.
- The tree next to which the planting material will be collected must be healthy. It is necessary to carefully examine whether there are any growths on the trunk or plaque on the leaves. A diseased tree can infect fungi through the soil.
During the growing period, you need to monitor the correct watering. For mushrooms, drip irrigation is preferable. It provides gradual and uniform soil moisture
Advice! Planting sites should be watered sparingly, and the space between them should be more abundant.
The optimal watering frequency is as follows:
- during drought - once a week;
- in rainy time - reduce the number of watering or stop for a while.
A year after planting the mycelium, subject to proper care, the first harvest can be expected. For the winter, you should carefully cover it from the cold, and in the spring, release it, ensuring the maximum flow of fresh air.
The harvest period continues throughout the summer and ends in October. Summer chanterelles are highly prized, but preference is given to mushrooms grown in early autumn. They break records for attractiveness and nutritional value. They are carefully cut with a knife under the spine. It is forbidden to uproot it - this can damage the mycelium.
Chanterelles grown in the garden have the same set of valuable elements as forest ones. They are delicious and have a variety of medicinal properties.
Growing chanterelles as a business
Chanterelles are not well suited for mass breeding. For their cultivation, an extensive path of development is more preferable, since they can develop only under conditions close to natural. It is easier to grow chanterelles at home, in your personal plot, but not in huge areas. There are several obstacles to growing chanterelles on an industrial scale:
- successful cultivation is impossible without the presence of forest trees on the site;
- the crop can be harvested only during the summer-autumn period;
- the size of the yield depends on the climatic conditions.
When deciding to grow chanterelles in a greenhouse, you need to keep in mind the following:
- it is necessary to prepare a large amount of compost saturated with sawdust;
- during the growing period, you should take care of a high level of humidity (up to 90%) and sufficient shading for chanterelles;
- you need to organize a plentiful watering system.
Areas with a mild climate without sudden temperature changes are favorable for growing chanterelles.
Growing chanterelles at home is not an easy process, but an interesting one. The main thing is to have a stock of patience and carefully follow all the recommendations. Let not immediately, but after a year hard work will be crowned with success, and the home mycelium will please with the harvest, will give the first bright chanterelles.