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The forest anemone is a forest dweller. However, when the necessary conditions are created, this plant grows successfully in the summer cottage. Anemone is easy to care for and is suitable for growing in the middle lane.
Description of forest anemones
Anemone is a perennial outdoor herb that belongs to the buttercup family. These flowers are also called anemone, because their petals are sensitive to the movement of air currents.
In nature, there are 170 species of anemones that are found in the northern hemisphere up to the Arctic.
Forest anemone is a primrose that lives in the north of Eastern and Western Europe, Siberia, in the foothills of the Caucasus and Crimea.
The forest anemone can be seen in the photo:
The root system of anemones is a powerful vertical rhizome. In spring, leaves grow from it on petioles up to 20 cm long.
At the end of May, peduncles appear, on which there are one or two large white flowers. The diameter of the flower is up to 7 cm. On the reverse side, the petals may have a purple tint.
Important! Duration of flowering of anemones is 3 weeks.
The forest anemone grows in three years. Then her bush reaches a volume of 30 cm. The installation of limiters helps to prevent overgrowth.
Planting and caring for an anemone should take into account the characteristics of this plant. A suitable place is chosen for it, after which they begin to prepare the soil.
All species of forest anemones grow in shady places. In natural conditions, these plants can be found under trees or shrubs. In the garden, anemones are planted next to primroses, pansies or spirea.
Important! The anemone prefers light soils with a high moisture and humus content.
The composition and moisture content of the soil should remain unchanged until the end of the season, even when the stems of the anemone die off.
Anemone grows in the forest in clearings and forest edges, slopes with numerous shrubs, rocky terrain, meadows and steppes. It is found in oak and coniferous forests, but not in dense thickets, but in open places. Forest anemone also thrives on sandy soils.
Therefore, in garden conditions, the plant needs to provide partial shade and plant it under a rowan, sea buckthorn, plum or cherry tree. The landing site must remain spacious and protected from the wind.
The anemone should be planted in fertile loose soil. It is best if the soil is neutral or slightly acidic. The plant can grow on poor soils, however, for abundant flowering, it is necessary to prepare a better soil composition.
Advice! Anemones are planted in light sandy or peaty soil.
If the soil on the site is heavy and clayey, then it is improved by loosening and adding sand. Due to this, the earth receives more air and warms up faster. Another method is to apply organic fertilizers, which enrich the soil with nutrients.
It is better to prepare the soil for anemones in the fall by digging up the flower beds and adding compost or overripe manure.
All types of anemone prefer well-moistened soil. However, stagnant water negatively affects the development of these plants. Therefore, before planting, it is imperative to equip the drainage. Crushed stone, gravel, expanded clay, broken brick acts as a drainage layer.
Since the anemone grows over time on the site, it can oppress other plants planted nearby. Transplanting an anemone will help to solve the problem.
It is best to carry out the procedure in the spring when the first shoots appear. The roots and adventitious buds are transferred to the desired location. You can transplant an anemone in September, but in this case, the plant takes root worse.
It is not recommended to transplant anemones too often, since the plant reacts sharply to such changes. The transplanted anemone may die.
With proper planting and care, the anemone has abundant flowering. Taking care of the plant is quite simple: it is enough to maintain the required moisture level and monitor the growth of weeds.
Fertilization and watering
If the forest anemone grows in the shade, then frequent watering is not required. It is necessary to monitor the level of moisture and, when the soil dries out, water the garden in a timely manner.
Mulch in the form of fallen leaves of apple or pear trees, peat or commercial mixtures will help to increase the moisture content of the soil. Due to the mulch layer, weeds do not grow, and moisture evaporates more slowly. The thickness of the mulch is 5 cm.
Fertilize the anemone with complexes consisting of minerals. They are used only during the flowering period.
Anemone does not require pruning unless its flowers are used for the bouquet. After flowering, the aboveground parts of plants die off without additional intervention.
Even if the anemone is dug up for the winter, it is not recommended to cut off its leaves so as not to violate the integrity of the plant.
During the growing season, it is not recommended to disturb the anemone. If neighboring flowers are being cut or the lawn is mowed, it is best not to touch the anemones.
Preparing for winter
If severe frosts are observed in the region, then you can dig up the rhizome of the anemones. In winter, it is stored in a cool place and planted in the ground in the spring.
In central Russia, the anemone is left in the open field for the winter. The garden bed is covered with tree branches or spruce branches. An example of shelter with spruce branches is shown in the photo:
Forest anemones propagation
For propagation of forest anemones, seeds, tubers or cuttings are used. The most effective is the use of anemone cuttings or tubers. This plant is rarely grown from seeds, since they have a low germination rate.
Anemone seeds are characterized by low germination. In total, ¼ part of the freshly harvested seeds germinates. Stratification of seed material, which consists in the effect of cold on it, helps to increase germination.
The forest anemone reproduces by self-seeding. Her seeds germinate faster than other species. If the seeds are planted in mid-summer, shoots may appear in September.
After planting the seeds in the summer, they are covered with fresh moss or other mulch that keeps the soil moist. In the fall, the tubers of the sprouted anemones are dug up and stored in a cool and humid place.
The process of growing anemones from seeds includes the following steps:
- The seeds are mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of 1: 3. You can use peat instead of sand. The resulting mass is thoroughly moistened. It is sprayed with water daily.
- When the seeds begin to swell, you need to add a little soil and place the mass in a room with a temperature of no more than 5 degrees.
- When the first shoots appear, the container with seeds is buried in snow or soil, then covered with sawdust. Plants should be kept cold for 1 to 2 months.
- Seedlings of anemones are planted in a permanent place after the appearance of the second leaf.
Important! The flowering of an anemone obtained from seeds will begin only in the third year.
It is best to plant anemone seeds in loose soil in the fall. You can also leave seeds in boxes and bury them in the area. They are covered with straw from above. In winter, the material will undergo natural processing at low temperatures, which will ensure its high germination capacity.
Using tubers, forest anemone is propagated as follows:
- Before planting, forest anemone tubers should be soaked in warm water. When they swell after a few hours, they are planted in pots to a depth of 5 cm.
- Before planting, you can wrap the anemone tubers in a cloth that has been moistened with epin solution and put in a plastic bag. In this state, the tubers are kept for 6 hours, after which you can immediately start planting them in the ground.
- For the anemones, a substrate is prepared, consisting of moistened peat and sand. Periodically, you need to add moisture so that the soil does not dry out.
- Then they begin to prepare the flower bed. A pit 15 cm deep and 30x30 cm in size is suitable for planting tubers.
- At the bottom of the pit, you need to pour a handful of wood ash and humus.
- If there are no tubercles on the tubers, then planting is carried out downward with a sharp end. If it is difficult to determine the growth point, then the tuber is planted with the side.
- The tubers are placed in a hole and sprinkled with earth, which needs to be crushed a little.
- After planting, the anemones are watered abundantly.
Another way to propagate anemones is by cuttings. The forest anemone forms root suckers with a regeneration bud.
The grafting procedure is carried out in early spring before the onset of active growth or in the fall during the dormant period. Cuttings grow from adventitious buds, which are located on the roots. Especially a lot of them are formed after the end of flowering.
About half of the spring cuttings take root. If autumn cuttings are taken, then 75% of them take root.
The grafting process takes place in the following sequence:
- The forest anemone is dug up and its roots are cut. The plant can be planted in place and will recover quickly during the season.
- The resulting roots must be cut into cuttings 5 cm long.
- To accelerate the process of root formation, a solution of epin or another growth stimulator is used.
- Cuttings are placed at a distance of 3 cm from each other in a pot with a loose substrate consisting of peat, sand and loam.
- After planting, the soil is compacted and covered with sand.
- Containers with cuttings are placed in a greenhouse or buried in the ground. From above, the landing site is covered with a film.
- Occasionally, the cuttings are watered.
- When a stem with green leaves appears, the intensity of watering is increased.
- After the advent of adventitious roots, the film is removed.
- The anemone is planted in the flower garden the next year.
Diseases and pests
Anemone is susceptible to leaf nematodes. It is a type of worm that feeds on the leaves of plants. As a result, dry spots appear on the leaves, which have an irregular shape and are located in an arbitrary order.
An anemone affected by a nematode should be destroyed, since the plant will die anyway. Then you need to replace the top layer of soil and change the landing site of the anemones.
In high humidity, anemones are attacked by slugs. These pests are collected using traps and baits.
Uses of forest anemones
The anemone will become a decoration of a summer cottage flower bed or a bouquet collected from primroses. To keep cut flowers fresh longer, it is recommended to add some warm water to the vase every day or spray the flowers.
Before placing in water, the stem of the anemones is cut at an acute angle. These flowers can be kept in the refrigerator for a long time if wrapped in paper.
Important! Anemone is used for decorative purposes only.
Anemone juice on contact with the skin can cause swelling, redness and itching. Therefore, cut flowers with care.
In folk medicine, forest anemone is rarely used, since its properties are not fully understood. The stems and leaves contain toxic substances, so it is better to refuse to experiment with this plant.
The forest anemone is an unpretentious plant with beautiful white flowers. In nature, anemones reproduce by seeds, but you can get new plants using tubers or cuttings.
Before planting, the soil is prepared. You can improve its composition with peat or sand. Anemone is undemanding to care if the required level of soil moisture is provided.