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In the last article, we made a classification of organic fertilizers. Today we want to continue our story by making a complete review of the mineral, their application and storage methods.
In horticulture and floriculture, the use of minerals such as potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen is widespread. Each of them fills the soil with necessary and missing elements and, subsequently, plants grow on the site more stably. The application to the soil occurs separately, in special mixtures or in diluted form.
Granular preparations, such as ammonium nitrate and superphosphate, are small lumps or grains that are quite crumbly, which is their main advantage over other types, since the granules do not stick together and spread well throughout the site.
This option is used to feed plants during development and growth. They water the soil once every 10-15 days, after the soil has been abundantly watered with water.
It is known that of all the minerals introduced into the soil by plants, about 20% of phosphorus, 50-70% of potassium and not more than 90% of nitrogen can be directly used by plants. With these statistics, we immediately answer the question that is often asked to specialists that soil fertilization is occurring, and the effect is not the same as expected. As you can see, not all fertilizers fall into the plant system, so unpleasant situations can sometimes occur, in the form of which fertilizers do not seem to work.
For the proper and normal development and growth of plants, elements that are contained in micronutrient fertilizers are needed. Their dosage should be clearly normalized, since plants use a very small part of molybdenum, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron and other elements that may contain these drugs.
This substance contains about 34-34% nitrogen. May be used in the form of white flakes or granules. Nitrate is highly soluble in water and is able to quickly act on the plant during fertilizer. Nitrate needs to be stored in a well-ventilated, dry place, as it has the ability to cake due to increased hygroscopicity. Mixing with organic materials is contraindicated, as spontaneous combustion is possible. Nitrate promotes acidification of the soil and is recommended for use on calcareous soils. Saltpeter is introduced into the soil at a rate of 15-25 g per square meter.
A fairly concentrated product that has a high nitrogen content, 46%. Urea is produced in the form of white granules of spherical shape, it is readily soluble in water, which greatly facilitates the use. Urea is caking, therefore it requires special storage conditions. It can be used both for foliar top dressing (50 g of urea per 10 liters of water, this solution is designed for spraying an area of 100 m²), and as a main fertilizer (10-20 g per 1 m²). It should be remembered that urea must not be mixed with superphosphate or lime.
This crystalline substance is gray or white, readily soluble in water and with an average nitrogen content of 20.5-21%. Ammonium sulfate can be introduced as the main fertilizer, starting in the fall, as it is fairly well retained in the soil. In the spring (during the growing season) it is worth using as top dressing. It is advisable to apply on calcareous soils, as soil acidification occurs. The application rate of ammonium sulfate is 25-40 g per area of 1 m².
A tool with a low nitrogen content, not more than 16.5%. Fine-crystalline substance with a yellow or gray tint, well soluble and applicable on soils not limy and acidic. Store sodium nitrate in a dry place. It can be used as top dressing for plants, or as a main fertilizer, the norm is 35-50 g per square meter.
It has the smallest indicator of nitrogen content among all the listed nitrogen fertilizers (15.5%), therefore, the substance can be used to alkalize the soil. It is produced in the form of small granules. Due to its hygroscopicity, calcium nitrate should be stored only in dry places. Contribute to the soil no more than 30-50 g per square meter.
Which fertilizer is better
Superphosphate is a soluble preparation, which can be produced in the form of granules or light gray powder. The fertilizer contains 14% phosphorite and 19-19.5% phosphoric acid. During use, superphosphate does not increase the acidity of the soil, as it contains gypsum (calcium sulfate). For each square meter, during feeding, it is possible to make no more than 40-60 g.
The tool is produced by manufacturers in the form of granules or powder containing 24% phosphoric acid. It can be used as ordinary superphosphate and is applied at a rate of up to 40-60 g per square meter.
Light gray fertilizer granules contain 45% phosphoric acid (soluble). Fertilizer is used as ordinary superphosphate, but its application rate is exactly 2 times less.
Fertilizer gets into use in the form of a powder of a dark shade containing 14% phosphoric acid. The powder does not dissolve in water. The alkaline product is effective enough to be applied to acidic calcareous soils (during digging) as the main fertilizer (approximately 50-80 g / 1 m²).
Virtually insoluble substance, which can be either brown or dark gray. The content of soluble phosphoric acid is from 19 to 30%. Phosphorite flour can be used as a basic fertilizer before liming, since it is not recommended to make it together with lime.
Potash fertilizers promote healthy plant growth and promote the formation of healthy rhizomes and tubers. Most often, such substances are necessary for plants at the end of the growing season.
The fertilizer is produced in the form of a crystalline powder, which has a pink, gray or white tint, the content of potassium oxide is 60%. Potassium chloride can be applied to the soil under a shovel (in autumn), at a rate of approximately 30 g / 1 m².
Fertilizer contains up to 40% potassium oxide, is applied in the autumn period as the main dressing, not more than 40 g / 1 m². It is a mixture of ground sylvinite and potassium chloride.
The content of potassium oxide is up to 50%. The tool is most effective for crops that are sensitive to chlorine, as well as for greenhouse plants.
This mixture contains up to 9% magnesium oxide and up to 40% potassium oxide. It is used especially for feeding plants that are very sensitive to chlorine. It is applicable in the spring as the main fertilizer, and also during planting of vegetable crops.
A fairly concentrated potash fertilizer, which contains 48% potassium oxide, is highly soluble in water and in its original form is a friable, crystalline white powder with a yellowish tinge. Experts recommend adding funds for crops that do not respond well to an excess of chlorine. Norm - 20-25 g of fertilizer per square meter.
It is produced in a dark colored powder, which contains 14% nitrogen and 44% potassium oxide. Recommended for plants that do not tolerate chlorine. Application is mandatory in spring, as potassium nitrate contains readily soluble nitrogen.
Potash (potassium carbonate)
It contains a lot of potassium oxide, 55%, absolutely does not contain chlorine and is recommended for use on acidic soils, especially under potatoes.
Wood ash can contain up to 11% phosphorus, 36% potassium and 40% calcium. Ash, obtained from cereal straw, is especially rich in nutrients.
Peat ash contains very little phosphorus and potassium; therefore, it can be used as a lime fertilizer, and ash obtained in the process of burning coal is generally not suitable for this purpose.
Vegetable ash is applied to the soil at the rate of 300 g per 1 m², wood ash - 700 g, peat - 1 kg. Top dressing with ash, which is carried out in autumn or spring, significantly reduces the acidity of the soil and improves its structure. Ash can be applied to the soil in combination with nitrogen fertilizers, but not mixing, but alternately. It is required to store the substance in a dry, dark place, as wet ash can lose its nutritional properties, although it remains suitable for liming.
It contains more than 20% magnesium and about 28% calcium; it is used for liming the soil (150-300 g per 1 m²) with high acidity and as a standard magnesium fertilizer (20-30 g per 1 m²).
It is highly soluble in water and gives good results after spraying trees with it. The magnesium content in the product is 16%, so a spray solution is prepared at the rate of 200 g of the drug per 10 liters of water.
Use of mineral fertilizers
It is also necessary to consider special fertilizer mixtures, which also show positive results during their use. These funds should be applied to the soil of gardens. Mixtures are prepared from various forms of mineral fertilizers, some microelements are added to them. There are three types of such mixtures, which differ in the content of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Fruiting - 1.25: 1.6: 1; flower - 1: 1,5: 1; garden - 1.5: 1.6: 1.
This type of fertilizer is used in spring and summer. Complex preparations are introduced into the soil evenly, on the surface of the earth, which indicates the area of the crown of the tree, you can even a little wider. Do not use ammonium sulfate, if the soil is acidic, always determine the compatibility of fertilizers. Liquid products are applied in diluted form, without storage, prepared immediately before application, organic and mineral - before soil cultivation.
As you can see, fertilizing the soil is very important for plants. But do not forget that the right selection of substances for a particular soil or culture is no less important. It is necessary to correctly determine the type, calculate the norms and correctly introduce it into the soil. Specialists from the store you are contacting will always help you buy funds. Initially, try to tell sellers about the composition and acidity of the soil, about its quality, as well as its location. Do not forget to mention which plants you buy fertilizers for, because preparations for indoor plants, for flowers or for seedlings are very different from each other. Immediately choose your own application tool and you may need a watering can, shovel or even a spreader if the site is large enough. I would also like to remind once again about the storage of drugs that you wish to buy. Each of them requires different conditions, and if you want to keep the remains of unused chemicals in a “fresh” form, then you will need to work on this.