Blackcurrant is the plant whose berries everyone loves. For this reason, the culture is grown in almost every suburban area.
Blackcurrant is a common berry crop that is grown not only in amateur gardening, but even on an industrial scale. She began to enjoy even greater popularity from the moment the healing properties of berries, leaves, buds and shoots were established. No wonder the plant is called the “storehouse of vitamins."
In addition to medicinal properties, blackcurrant has a very pleasant aroma and taste. Berries are used for making jam, jam, juice, compotes, they are consumed fresh or frozen and processed.
The plant has high rates of economic value. This is a quick crop that is capable of showing high yields. Fruiting begins in the second year after planting. Initially, berries can be up to 700-800 g per bush, but after 4-5 years, the yield rises to 4-8 kg per bush.
Realization of currants and young seedlings of the plant can bring good profits, especially if you master the cultivation technology, which, in fact, is quite simple to make not only for an experienced gardener, but also for a beginner.
Blackcurrant: tips for growing
Soil preparation and planting
To plant a bush, you need to determine the right place. It should be located in a well-lit area, but be protected from the winds. If during the summer currants burn out or even dry out in the sun, it is advisable to pritenit plant. You can do this with small, makeshift canopies, or simply plant tall annual plants between the bushes - sunflowers, corn, etc.
Before landing, you need to prepare the soil. Complex fertilizers are applied to the plot in the proportions of 7-10 kg of humus, 50-80 g of superphosphate and 1 liter of wood ash for each square meter of berry. After fertilizers are introduced into the soil, it should be dug to a depth of no more than 25 cm.
During planting, it is necessary to observe the correct density of plants so that, subsequently, they do not interfere with each other's development. Planting density, first of all, depends on the variety itself, as well as the characteristics of the formation of bushes. Small, straight-growing and marginal species are planted at a distance of about 1-1.3 m in a row and not more than one and a half meters between rows. The landing hole should be about 50 cm in diameter and 30-40 cm in depth. Before planting, up to 5 kg of humus, 150 g of superphosphate and 1 l of wood ash are added to the wells. Planting seedlings is required at an angle 4-6 cm deeper than they grew in the mother liquor. This type of planting contributes to the formation of additional roots and shoots.
The seedlings placed in the hole, straighten the roots and fall asleep with a layer of earth, slightly compacting it. After abundant watering occurs, at least a bucket of water for each well of planting. In order to retain moisture, the soil around the currant bush is mulched with sawdust, peat, humus, or simply covered with dry soil to avoid the formation of a crust. Next, the seedlings are pruned. They should leave only 3-4 strong kidneys. You can plant currants in spring and autumn, although experts say that autumn planting is most favorable. Read more about planting bushes in the fall in the article “Autumn planting of bushes and trees in the garden.”
How to prune a currant bush
Blackcurrant is considered a very hygrophilous plant, so it should be watered quite often. With a lack of moisture, the fruits become smaller, crumble, shoots grow very poorly. Professional summer residents are advised to water plantings in the morning or in the evening, when the soil has a normal temperature.
Plants require watering and after harvesting, do not forget about this. Drought at the moment can lead to freezing of bushes in winter. Watering in the main phases of bush development is very important - intensive growth of the ovary, pouring berries immediately after harvesting. We also recommend shedding currants well before wintering, this will harden the plant and strengthen it.
Care and fertilizer
Depending on the variety, currants can be a moody plant, so it requires careful care from year to year. If you are counting on a stable crop and normal functioning of the shrub, then you will have to take care of this.
A good harvest can be achieved by maintaining the correct conditions for the plant. This requires constant tillage, timely watering and the introduction of complex fertilizers, as well as the correct pruning and bush formation.
Of great importance are top dressing during the growing season. During the fertile season, it is necessary to carry out at least three top dressings. Fertilizing occurs with the help of nitrogen substances (in early spring) - ammonium nitrate (30 g per bush) or urea (20 g per bush), organic fertilizer (after flowering, at the time of beginning of the ovary) - bird droppings (1:12) or mullein ( 1: 6), at the rate of 1-1.5 buckets for each currant bush. Fertilizer is also possible after harvest. This is necessary in order to strengthen the plant and give it the opportunity to lay new fruit buds.
Trimming and shaping bushes
Cutting currants and the formation of its bushes are some of the most laborious and complex methods of caring for the plant. The opinion about the dependence of the crop on the number of shoots is incorrect. A good and high-quality crop is formed precisely on the strong shoots of last year.
Skeletal branches of a bush, 2-3 years old, are considered the most productive. The first pruning of currants occurs immediately after planting. All shoots are cut off, only a few of the strongest and most developed remain. The next few years, weak and excess shoots, one-year shoots, as well as broken and dried branches are removed from the bush.
The formation of the bush is completed only in the 3-4th year of growth. In the event that the bush forms poorly root-type shoots, it is worth cutting several skeletal branches in order to stimulate the growth of new shoots. A properly formed bush has about 9-12 branches of different ages with strong growths.
Five-year-old weak and poorly fruiting branches are cut after each pruning, that is, every year. It is best if pruning and bush formation occurs in the spring, when the buds have not yet blossomed. The beginning of April is considered a desirable period. Properly produced annual pruning can contribute to good growth of strong, radical shoots and high-quality branching. Also, pruning has a good effect on increasing the overall yield, maintaining the proper illumination of the bush, ventilation. All this gives its result - the crop rises, and each berry of this crop grows larger.
How to plant and care for currants
Use of plant materials
The fruits of the plant are highly regarded in the food industry. They are widely used fresh, dried, frozen, etc. Berries are used to make jams, preserves, jellies, compotes, syrups, marmalades, marshmallows, used in the form of candy fillings and so on.
The plant’s buds are used in the food and alcohol industry. as well as for the preparation of various essences.
Leaves are used as a surrogate for tea, as well as for pickles and pickles.
Blackcurrant quite simply finds itself in landscape design. with its help you can beautifully and very high quality decorate the garden. Other types of crops can even be used as hedges.
Diseases and Pests
Blackcurrant, like all garden plants, has its enemies - these are diseases and pests. The basis of the fight against them is the constant observance of the rules of agricultural technology. As you know, in a well-groomed garden, there are simply no conditions for the development and spread of pests and plant diseases. But the garden is not always able to be protected from adversity. The cause may also be a neglected neighborhood garden, from which pests and diseases are transferred to your plants.
So, apparently, you should consider a number of diseases that affect blackcurrant is: anthracose, powdery mildew, gobby rust, white spotting, terry. Each of these diseases adversely affects the bush with beautiful berries and at the same time significantly affects its appearance and productivity. But that's not all, There are also pests that are ready to attack the plant at any time: goldilocks, leaf gall midges, currant bud mites, spider mites, sawflies, fireworms, bugles, moths and shoot aphids. Each of the above pests causes almost irreparable nonsense to currants. Some of them influence plant vital activity so strongly that they have to be removed from the site altogether.
Actions against pests and diseases
Initially, you should always remember the fact that you always have time to water or sprinkle the plant with chemistry, but you should not do this right away at the moment when you saw signs of the disease or pests. To the extent possible, it is necessary to destroy adversity manually - collect larvae, pluck damaged leaves and shoots, and destroy everything by burning.
The next stage may be the use of decoctions of insecticidal plants, the harmful effects of which are much less than the effects of radical pesticides. As soon as you notice the need for extreme measures when loyal methods of struggle fail, you can use chemistry. The main thing in this situation is not to forget about security measures. We recommend reading the article on red currant.