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Growing eggplant in a greenhouse or greenhouse is one of the main ways to get a guaranteed good, high and high-quality crop of this garden crop in most regions of our country. In greenhouse cultivation, such moments as a competent selection of a variety, timely and correctly carried out planting, as well as compliance with agricultural technology are very important.
The best greenhouse varieties
When choosing an eggplant variety, it is necessary to take into account the botanical features of the heat-loving cultureas well as soil and climatic conditions in the growing region, the characteristics of the greenhouse design and what options for using the harvested crops are priority.
Of course, the best varieties and hybrids are self-pollinated, with high rates of marketability and taste of fruits, productive and undemanding to care. It is preferable to grow unpretentious zoned varieties with a high level of yield, intended for cultivation in protected ground.
|Variety / hybrid||Plant||Fetus||Pulp||Grade / Hybrid Value|
|Mid-early hybrid "Bard F1"||Vigorous, semi-spreading, densely leafy||Cylindrical, violet, weighing up to 0.85 kg||Greenish, not bitter||Ecologically plastic with a stable yield|
|Mid-early hybrid "Goliath F1"||Vigorous and densely leafy||Pear-shaped, dark purple, weighing up to 0.95 kg||Greenish staining, good density||Resistance to BMD|
|Mid-season hybrid "Bagira F1"||Semi-compact and compact||Oval, dark purple, weighing up to 350 g||Greenish, not bitter, tender||Suitable for use in low volume technology|
|Mid-early hybrid "Baikal F1"||Half-spread with medium leaf||Pear-shaped, violet, weighing up to 350 g||Greenish, not bitter, tender||Great taste and high commercial quality.|
|Early ripe hybrid "Boyarin F1"||Half-spread with medium leaf||Pear-shaped, dark purple, weighing up to 250 g||Greenish staining, good density||High fruit setting|
|Early ripe grade "Vakula"||Half spread with medium sized leaves||Oval, purple, weighing up to 0.6 kg||White staining, delicate||Early and friendly crop formation|
|Mid-early variety "Dolphin"||Vigorous and leafy||Acinaciform, lilac-white, weighing 0.45 kg||Greenish, enjoyable||Very rarely affected by a spider mite|
|Early ripening grade "Sperm whale"||Vigorous, semi-spreading, mid-leaf and erect||Elongated pear-shaped, purple, weighing up to 0.7 kg||White coloring, tasty and tender||Large-fruited with the absence of thorns on the cup|
|Mid-season grade "Lolita"||Half spread with medium sized leaves||Cylindrical, violet, weighing up to 320 g||Medium Density, Greenish White||High yield and marketability|
|Mid-season grade "Polundra"||Half spread with medium sized leaves||Pear-shaped, white, with lilac-pink strokes, weighing up to 250 g||White staining, delicious and very tender||Great taste and high commercial quality.|
|Early ripe hybrid "Ekavi F1"||Medium to Strong||Pear-shaped, violet or dark violet, weighing up to 285 g||Good density, good taste||Stable productivity, good keeping quality|
|Mid-season grade "Filimon"||Vigorous and densely leafy||Ovoid, dark purple, weighing up to 1 kg||White, very dense, without bitterness||Resistance to BMD|
|Early hybrid "Northern Blues F1"||Closed type with medium leaf||Oval, lilac, weighing up to 245 g||Greenish, not bitter, very tasty and tender||Great taste and high commercial quality.|
Seeds sold by some manufacturers have already undergone preliminary preparation, and there is no need to further process them. If raw seed is purchased, then you should know some secrets to increase germination rates and protection against pathogens:
- sort out full-fledged seeds, discarding empty, damaged and having uncharacteristic staining;
- disinfection of seed material in a 1% potassium permanganate solution for a quarter of an hour;
- rinse the seeds in water;
- treatment of seeds in solution with growth stimulants, which can be used as "heteroauxin", "Kornevin", "Epin" or "Zircon";
- conducting hardening measures by alternating high and low temperature conditions.
Before sowing, seed treatment with a Prestige-type preparation is allowed. It is important to remember that only fresh eggplant seeds can give good germination. After about four years of storage, seed germination rates are significantly reduced.
Eggplant: variety selection
To determine the optimal timing of sowing the prepared seed material for seedlings, it is necessary to take into account the following parameters:
- the duration of the growing season;
- culture requirements for heat;
- conditions for subsequent cultivation;
- seed germination period.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting seeds about a couple of months before the moment when it is supposed to plant seedlings in a permanent place. It should be remembered that the soil in the greenhouse bed by this time should be warmed up to temperature indicators of at least 18-20 ° C.
It is not difficult to grow eggplant seedlings. It is enough to adhere to the following recommendations for planting and caring for seedlings of vegetable crops:
- planted seeds should be planted in individual seedlings filled with a nutritious soil mixture based on 60% horse peat, 10% sod land, 20% humus, 5% coarse sand or sawdust and 5% vermicompost;
- eggplant seeds should be sown to a depth of one and a half centimeters, after conducting abundant moistening of the soil mixture;
- the temperature in the room for growing should be at the level of 22-24 ° C in the presence of sufficient lighting;
- before the first true leaf, seedlings need to provide 1-2 waterings per week, and after the appearance - the number of waterings per week needs to be increased to three.
So that seedlings can grow strong and healthy, you can once feed young plants with complex fertilizers. About a couple of weeks before planting, you should definitely begin to harden the seedlings.
Permanent Seat Rules
Planting of seedlings for a permanent place is carried out according to the scheme:
- 0.60-, 65 m between rows;
- 30-35 cm in rows between planted plants;
- about five plants per square meter.
Too thickened plantings cause a significant reduction in yield. On the ridges of heated greenhouses should be placed no more than two bushes per square meter. When grown in unheated greenhouses - no more than three bushes per square meter.
Growing with other crops
It is possible to plant eggplants in a greenhouse with other crops, but at the same time, a decrease in productivity is often observed, since the plant consumes a lot of water, especially during flowering and fruiting, which is not very favorable for other crops.
When growing in the same greenhouse with tomatoes, you should especially carefully monitor the temperature indicators and the level of humidity. In addition to tomatoes, eggplant is not contraindicated in the neighborhood with greenhouse crops such as onions for greens and melon. Also, beans grow very well in the same greenhouse as eggplant.
Caring for eggplants in greenhouses is much easier if you equip the protected ground with a drip irrigation system. In this case, it is possible to provide the plants with a metered supply of water and liquid top dressing directly to the root system.
It should be remembered that in greenhouse conditions, the eggplant bushes are taller, therefore, they need the correct formation and timely pruning:
- a spreading formation in which plant stems creep along the ground is obsolete and often accompanied by decay of the fruit;
- stake formation involves planting four plants in a square way with a high stake in the center with attachment of a garter for plants;
- single-stem formation involves the removal of all shoots, except for one, on which the crop will be formed;
- two-and three-stem formation involves the selection of a pair or three of the most developed shoots, followed by tying them to the trellis.
In addition, in greenhouse conditions, the plant must provide manual pollination. As a rule, it is necessary to pollinate eggplant bushes manually with an insufficient number of pollinating insects. A good result is shaking the flowering plants and removing the excess leaves that cover them. To improve the pollination process, it is also possible to treat plants with special preparations for fruit formation. Spraying bushes with boric acid is recommended for weak flowering.
Timely and proper prevention of eggplant damage by diseases and plant parasites is a guarantee of stable and high yield when growing a garden crop in greenhouse conditions.
|Presowing treatment of seed material||Seed disinfection in potassium permanganate solution or in hydrogen peroxide|
|Timely and high-quality replacement of greenhouse soil, as well as disinfection of ridges after harvesting and before planting seedlings||As a rule, depending on the area of the greenhouse structure, 8-20 cm of the topsoil is replaced, with replacement by fresh soil from open ridges and subsequent steaming or spilling with a solution of potassium permanganate|
|Constant monitoring of microclimatic conditions in the greenhouse||The most suitable temperature when growing should be in the range of 25-28about C at high humidity|
|Regular inspection of eggplant bushes for disease or pest damage||At the first signs of damage, it will be necessary to use chemicals, since folk remedies can exclusively be used for prophylactic treatment of eggplant bushes|
|Regular removal of weeds and plant debris||The main way to deal with weeds in the greenhouse is traditionally weeding, but you can reduce their number by using a black film or agrofiber|
|Conducting preventive treatments of plants||To protect plantings from slugs, the soil around the plants can be sprinkled with crushed eggshell with ash. For prevention purposes, garlic, mustard and pepper infusions with the addition of liquid soap are used for the treatment of bushes|
Compliance with agricultural technology at all stages of growing eggplant in greenhouse conditions allows you to get a high yield of tasty and healthy vegetable culture.