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Potato is one of the most important vegetables for growing in the garden, the king of the diet. No wonder this vegetable is also called the second bread - because it has a number of excellent qualities. Firstly, potatoes are rich in proteins and vitamins, as well as minerals. In addition, potatoes are an ideal dietary food. It is also used in folk medicine.
A potato is a plant that loves light. Its lack or complete absence significantly inhibits the development of the bush, which in turn leads to a decrease in the volume of the resulting crop. If there is not enough lighting, the stems begin to turn pale and stretch, flowering is absent or weak, and a small number of tubers are formed.
Under normal lighting, the plant stem has a length of 50-80 centimeters. The roots are in the fertile soil layer at a depth of approximately 20-25 centimeters.
The temperature for flowering of potatoes is 19-22 degrees, if the ambient temperature is higher, then this can lead to the discharge of buds and flowers. Tubers form at t in 17-18 degrees. Small frosts, not even more than minus 1 degree Celsius, can lead to the death of the plant. If the temperature in the street reaches a limit of 29-30 degrees, then the formation of fruits stops, which leads to a decrease in productivity.
You can not overmoisten the planting - it is constant uniform moisture that gives the best effect. If the plant experiences drought, then the stems cease to develop properly, the lower leaves dry, the tubers become small.
Fertile loose and structural soil makes it possible to properly develop the culture and obtain the maximum yield. The roots of this plant use much more oxygen during growth and development than the roots of neighbors in the garden. Depending on what access is provided to oxygen for roots, friability and taste properties of potatoes depend. If the soil has a heavy structure (for example, clay), then the tubers grow very small, irregular in shape, and also have not the best taste. In order to grow vegetables on such soils, it is necessary to use sand or compost. Potatoes tolerate various soil acidity, including increased.
If you want to get an early harvest, then you need to plant a crop on a well-lit area with warm soil. All vegetables, with the exception of potatoes and tomatoes, can be predecessors at the planting site.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
The plant consumes a large amount of fertilizer during the growth of its aerial parts. Later, after its formation, the consumption of minerals decreases sharply - potatoes use their accumulations in the tops.
In autumn, it is necessary to completely dig a plot that is reserved for planting a crop. If you have a shallow depth of the fertile layer, then you need to increase it. To do this, add 4-5 centimeters each year, bringing the depth to 30. Under the spade, compost fertilizer or humus are also added - 4.5-5 kilograms per 1 m², if the soil is infertile - up to 9 kilograms.
Do not make fresh manure under the plant, because this can increase the risk of plant disease. In autumn, potash and phosphorus fertilizers must be scattered: 22-25 grams of granular double superphosphate and potassium sulfate are used per 1 m².
In spring, the site should be dug up and ammonium nitrate in the amount of 16-20 grams per 1 m² on fertile soil and up to 25 grams on poor soil. Ammonium nitrate can be easily replaced with ammonium sulfate, and potassium sulfate can replace stone chloride. Reinforced potassium-phosphorus fertilizing can increase the plant's protection against pests and diseases. Use nitrogen fertilizers with caution, because the plant can get a strong vulnerability to diseases with an overdose of nitrogen.
Recommend nevertheless use tuber planting rather than seed cultivation, although the second way is the place to be.
Getting an early crop is facilitated by planting only healthy planting material of early varieties. Only healthy potatoes weighing about 90-100 grams should be planted.
Before planting for 2.5-3 weeks, you need to get the tubers and put them in boxes in 1-2 layers in order to wither them. They warm up, eyes begin to wake up. It is necessary to monitor the sprouts - they should not be allowed to stretch.
To get earlier seedlings of the crop, you need to sprout tubers. Before planting, for 1-1.5 months it is necessary to bring seed potatoes into a bright, warm room, put it in small height boxes or narrow film bags of 7-8 kilograms. Be sure to ventilate the holes in the bags, this is one of the requirements of the technology of germination of potatoes.
This germination is possible to produce in greenhouses at t about 15 degrees Celsius. If the temperature is higher, then germination will be significantly faster. The average length of potato sprouts is 9-10 millimeters. Sprouted tubers can be neatly stacked in boxes of 6 rows a week before planting, sprinkled with peat crumbs or sawdust, and later can be moistened with a solution of mineral fertilizers. 11-12 grams of ammonium nitrate, 11-12 grams of superphosphate and 5 grams of potassium sulfate (potassium chloride) must be dissolved in 10 liters of water. Wet growth is carried out at a temperature of 15 degrees. If you prepare planting material in accordance with these recommendations, the seedlings will appear 11-12 days earlier than usual.
It is possible to cut large potato tubers, at least 2 eyes should remain in each of the scraps, and the weight should be at least 0.04 kilograms. The potato needs to be cut well in advance of planting so that the cutoff point is corked.
To accelerate the germination of tubers, it is necessary to dust them with baking ash, or spray with a solution of copper sulfate (1 gram per 10 liters of water, 10 kg of a solution per 10 kg of seeds). You can plant potatoes while warming the soil to a depth of 10 centimeters to 7-8 degrees. If the material is sprouted, then it can be planted at a lower temperature.
With waterlogged soil, it is necessary to plant potatoes on the ridge, having a height of about 11-12 centimeters. Such planting will improve the thermal and air regime of the soil. On light soil, you do not need to make ridges. Potatoes should be planted in rows located at a distance of 0.6 meters from each other. Large tubers can be planted more rarely and deeply, unlike medium or small ones. By spraying the plant with budding with a solution of 0.005% sodium humate, ripening can be accelerated by several (4-6) days.
Plants consume a lot of water until the last stage of vegetation, but if the soil is heavy, it should be watered with caution, as we have already talked about the danger of over-moistening the crop.
Cleaning is carried out before the first steady frosts appear, in dry and warm weather. The less damage there is on the potato tubers, the better the crop can be stored.
8-10 days before harvesting, it is necessary to mow the tops, this will lead to the outflow of nutrients to the tubers. This will lead to their best ripening, as well as increase safety.
Potatoes should be dug with a shovel or garden pitchfork between rows so as not to damage the tubers. Take potatoes immediately for further planting and put in a separate box. Put tubers in storage after 9-10 days after harvesting. All wounds that were obtained before harvesting must heal, and potatoes need time to ripen.
Video - Mittlider High Yield Potato Growing
Growing potatoes under the straw
The method saves you from hilling and weeding, which reduces all efforts only to planting and cleaning. The video talks in more detail about the technology, which today is becoming increasingly popular. We recommend trying to grow potatoes in straw.
They have been cultivated since the beginning of April after the corresponding treatment of tubers (read about this in the article above). The growing season is small. Potatoes of the following varieties have proven themselves well:
- Blue eye;
- Timo, as well as other varieties.
Middle Early Varieties
The growing season is often 65-80 days. Cleaning takes place in July. A month before planting tubers of these varieties must be left in the boxes for germination. The best mid-early grades:
Harvesting is carried out in early August, the growing season lasts 85-100 days. Do not forget about the additional processing of tubers before planting. The best varieties:
Late and medium late high-yielding varieties
Such varieties have the best indicators for preservation, the growing season is the longest - up to 120 days. Cleaning is done quite late - only by the beginning of October. The weight of the tuber, on average, is 0.09 kilograms. The most attractive late varieties:
- Gingerbread man, as well as others.
The plant has a large height, as well as large leaves. The tubers are oval with small eyes. The growing season is 67-75 days. The average weight of potatoes is 150 grams, but can reach 0.8 kilograms. Light yellow flesh.
The variety has an excellent taste with a starch content of 12.5-15.7%, excellent keeping quality. The average yield is 17-32.5 tons per hectare of land, the maximum - up to 38.5 tons. The plant has good resistance to diseases and pests.
The secrets of growing potatoes (video)
Dutch growing technology
The basic principles of this plant growing technique:
- Excellent quality of planting material - potatoes of at least 2 reproductions for planting should be used;
- Crop rotation. Potatoes are planted in one area no more than 4 years. Most preferred precursors are cereals (winter crops);
- Use of herbicides;
- Permanent chemical treatment of plants to destroy pests, reduce morbidity;
- Constant top dressing;
- Exposure of soil cultivation technology.