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At the cottage, many objects and buildings can be built that will facilitate work and life, but one of them is the main one, and it is necessary to build it in the near future. Today we’ll talk about how to build a cellar with our own hands, and how to simplify this process as much as possible.
Cellar - a building needed in a summer cottage and in any private estate. This is a small cold room for storing vegetables and fruits, preparations and wines, meat and dried products ... in short, the cellar is almost the same refrigerator, but slightly different in size, and also without constant expenses for repairs and electricity. But in order to have such a cold room in the country, you need to work hard, because building it yourself is not an easy task.
What are the cellars
In the world there is a huge variety of cellars that are somewhat similar to each other, but most often they are very different in functionality. These are vegetable stores, ground and stone food storages, blocked, buried chambers, collars, underground guards, cellars in garages and houses, Finnish glaciers and many, many others. Each type easily copes with the tasks set initially, but only if one condition is met: the construction went right, in compliance with the requirements and the project. Therefore, if you decide to build a cellar on the site with your own hands, get ready: the process is not easy, costly, very nervous, but the right one and fully recouped.
The simplest cellar in the country
Today we will study the process of building a complex capital cellar, which can also serve your grandchildren, but first we will look at the simplest cellar for a summer residence, which can save many products at first. It is also suitable for summer residents who do not procure food for the future, but use the room only for temporary storage of food, water, a small amount of fruit.
The simplest option is as follows: a simple pit with a lid on top and simple ventilation, however, it is enough to prevent drinking water from overheating in the summer sun, keep food brought with you until tomorrow, or even save some harvest in it that has not yet taken home.
Everyone can build the simplest cellar with his own hands in the country. What does that require? Naturally, desire, tools and materials. Of course, an assistant would not hurt.
First of all, you need to choose a hill (preferably noticeable enough) to outwit the groundwater, which constantly strive to spoil the cellars and their contents. When such a point is found, make a small project, put the dimensions, the depth of the room on it, write an approximate estimate. In short, even if by hand, you still can’t do without a project, since the correct sequence and clarity are simply mandatory.
Now, constantly peeping into the project, dig a small pit. It does not have to be deep - to the height of a person, otherwise we will begin the capital construction: you can make a depression by 1 m, and on the sides, say, 1.2 x 1.4 m. These are approximate sizes. Naturally, you will dig for a long time and it is difficult, but believe me: the result is worth it!
Now that the pit is ready, the walls should be strengthened, because regardless of the composition of the soil, over time it can simply fill up the cellar. To prevent this from happening, we recommend making a concrete bottom in accordance with all the rules - with bedding and a pillow - and installing a metal frame in it, at the corners of the cellar. You will have the following structure: the floor foundation holds a metal frame, for example, from a corner, which is interconnected by transverse reinforcing bars. Behind the frame, creating a barrier for scattering of earth, there is a fine mesh netting, on top, on a metal frame, there is a foam insulated lid.
The sequence of work is very simple: a pit, pouring the foundation floor, installing the supporting frame and the limiter for shedding soil, installing the cover. Next - only the simplest ventilation, shelves inside (if necessary) and a properly insulated cover that does not allow temperature to pass through. Everything - the simplest cellar, which will cost a penny and a couple of days of work, is ready. True, this is not a capital structure, but rather a pit for cooling products, but still it saves, and very often. If you need a quality and solid building - read on!
Now we will move on to the construction of a capital storage, in which you can keep a huge amount of products and go to full growth. But remember that here it is necessary to follow the plan and observe many nuances, which we will discuss in our article.
Choosing a place for a cellar
Definitely, the cellar should be located on a hill, and if this is possible, be sure to use it! Thus, the room will be less susceptible to destruction and other effects of groundwater and groundwater, soil pressure. It will be dry, and its waterproofing and subsequent repairs will take less money.
Immediately determine which particular cellar you want to see on your own site: inside the building or free-standing.
When choosing a place, remember that a cellar under a house or, for example, a garage, is much more profitable and more convenient. It will not occupy excess space on the site, will not be susceptible to atmospheric phenomena, and will become much more convenient to use, especially in the cold season.
So, starting from just such nuances, determine the location of the storage in the country and only then proceed to the development of the project and construction.
Recommendations of specialists
We specifically decided to place this section of the article exactly here, since in the middle of the material it will be most noticeable. Be sure to use the following recommendations, as they are built on the professional opinion of specialists.
- The cellar in the country should be built in the summer.
- Construction should take place on a hill.
- To increase the service life of the room, use only high-quality material.
- Follow the proper construction of walls and anti-dump structures.
- The storage should be equipped with good ventilation.
- Stairs, shelves, doors and other wooden materials must be carefully processed and prepared for the appropriate premises.
- Be sure to follow the correct sequence of work and do not save.
When making an estimate, you must take into account the material in it, and this must be done immediately, based on your own requirements, budget, and other factors. The cellar can be built of wood, concrete slabs, bricks - at your discretion. You can also build a structure of metal, but keep in mind: it is very difficult to achieve the desired temperature in it.
Do-it-yourself cellar waterproofing
This is an important point: it is high-quality waterproofing that can significantly extend the life of a cellar.
Pay particular attention to materials. They must be selected depending on the level of groundwater. If the latter is lower than the cellar floor, then pressure-free waterproofing will be necessary, but if it is higher, pressure-resistant waterproofing.
Pay attention to the walls, because not only the destructive impact of the external environment, but also severe pressure will be exerted on them. Therefore, the material for the construction of walls must be selected correctly, for example, concrete material with enhanced waterproof properties. If you decide to use concrete or even brick for construction, be sure to treat them with special compounds, make a high-quality cement screed on both sides, finish the walls with protective materials, for example roofing material.
Also, to reduce the pressure on the walls that may be exerted by groundwater, drainage can be arranged around the cellar.
Initially, you will need to dig a pit, but it should not be made clearly in terms of the size of the plan or the finished project, but increased on each side of the cellar by about half a meter. This is necessary so that further it would be possible to carry out all construction work and connect the necessary communications without problems. If possible, in order to maintain the integrity of the soil layer, it is better to dig a pit under the cellar manually.
Now that the pit is ready, it is necessary to arrange the base of the cellar. To do this, create a pillow of crushed stone and broken brick and pour everything on top with hot bitumen. This will make it possible to establish a high-quality waterproof layer.
The next stage is the construction and strengthening of the walls. Naturally, it will be much more correct to build a foundation, and not just fill the floor in the cellar, and if this is done, then it will be much easier to build walls. Masonry is made on the foundation, which is tied up with the foundation itself and reinforced with reinforcement. It is advisable not to spare the steel rods and wire to strengthen the walls, as this will help to cope with external pressure.
After the walls are erected and qualitatively strengthened, their proper decoration is necessary. On the outside, plaster should be laid from ordinary cement mortar, then several layers of roofing material (it can be immediately with resin or bitumen impregnation), which will ensure a careful fit to the wall and increase waterproofing properties.
A serious attitude to the quality of the walls and floor, as well as their dense bundle and waterproofing will serve the good of your new cellar.
Internal processing of the walls should be as follows. Initially, a crate is made under asbestos-cement sheets, on which they, carefully treated with a primer and hot bitumen, will be fixed with screws. At the same time, make sure that the sheets are well processed on both sides, especially at the joints.
DIY video on building a cellar or basement
After installing the wall sheets, the floor is poured with concrete and leveled, all joints are again treated with a waterproof compound.
Further wall and floor decoration is at the discretion of the owner or customer, that is, at your own request. Walls can be whitewashed, and planks can be thrown onto the floor. You can also make more expensive finishes, but it depends entirely on the budget.
In the process, do not forget to leave openings and the correct entrances for communications, immediately organize ventilation ducts and the supply of electric current to illuminate the building.
Completion of main work, frequently asked questions and answers
In the last section of this material, we would like to summarize the construction of the cellar in the country, as well as answer some questions that most often arise during its construction.
- Semi-buried cellar, roof and entrance. The organization of the roof and entrance is a fairly simple matter, since there are no longer any factors of the internal influence of moisture or soil pressure. All work can be carried out according to ordinary standards. Consider only the fact that a self-made ground cellar (or rather, its upper part) should be about a meter larger than the underground part, around the entire perimeter. This is necessary to provide additional protection of the underground part from the effects of atmospheric phenomena.
- Ventilation. Ventilation in the cellar is extremely necessary, otherwise the products will deteriorate and rot, and the finish will soon become unusable - and you will incur huge expenses. Organizing it is quite simple: you just need to ensure proper air circulation inside. For this, two pipes should be introduced into the finished room at different levels from the floor and on opposite walls - in short, by all the rules of good ventilation.
- Luke. It is organized in the event that it is a small cellar or you decide to build it in the garage with your own hands. Cellars of large sizes do not need hatches - it is much more practical to use doors. But if it is necessary to make a hatch, then it is made of wood, and it must be sealed so that there is no influence of the external environment on the internal temperature. To do this, the hatch can be sheathed with foam and a special insulating film.
- Stairs. If you are building a cellar in a house or garage, then a small wooden staircase is enough to descend into it. If this is a freestanding cellar, and even a large area, it is advisable to build a staircase of concrete using a frame, pillow, formwork, dressing with a foundation and cement mortar.
- Shelves. But it’s easier than ever - wooden racks or metal racks with wooden shelves. Hanging individual shelves on the walls is not recommended, as they will affect the tightness of the room and the quality of the finish, except perhaps small shelves for light weight.
- What is good cellar in the house and why is it more valued than a similar building on the street? The answer is in the comfort of use and in the fact that in cold weather you do not need to go outside, as well as constantly carry essential goods over long distances.
- Is it possible to build a wine cellar with your own hands? Of course, but for this special technology is used, as well as special equipment for adjusting humidity and temperature. For storing wine, the standard cellar under the house is also perfect.
To say that this undertaking is simple, we have no right, but it cannot be called too difficult either. The construction of the cellar, the proper decoration and its equipment depend only on experience, skills, desire and budget, and therefore, if you want to build something like this on your own site, carefully study our material. Also on the site you can find a lot of useful information about drainage, drainage, roof construction and other useful articles that will help to complete the job successfully. We recommend reading the article about the summer kitchen for summer cottage.