Apple tree (Malus) - a plant belonging to the family Pink and with sweet and sour and spherical fruits. Apple trees are grown to produce fruits and to use the tree as a decorative tree in parks and gardens. All of them are excellent honey carriers. Plant wood is actively used for the manufacture of carpentry and turning products.
Biological features of the apple tree
The height of the tree can reach 6-10 meters. Crohn is a combination of semi-skeletal, skeletal and fouling branches. Skeletal and semi-skeletal branches form the basis of the crown, growing branches are formed on it, on which the fruits are formed. Germinating shoots include vegetative shoots and fruiting branches.
The root system of apple varieties of different varieties is similar. The roots occupy a large space and have vertical and horizontal directions. Trees that have a deep (up to 4.5 m) and shallow (up to 1.6 m) location of the root system have both root types - vertical and horizontal.
The best varieties of apple trees
There are many varieties of apple trees. They differ in some characteristics and have their own characteristics.
Early ripe varieties
Early ripening varieties ripen in early summer. Their taste characteristics and color vary depending on the variety.
|Grade name||Key Features||Fruit characterization|
Resistant to disease and weather
White fill (Belyj Naliv)
The tree reaches a height of 5 meters. Ripening is early, therefore only 3 weeks are allotted for harvesting.
The fruits have a noble color - ivory. The size of apples depends on the age of the tree: the younger the apple tree, the more fruit.
Not afraid of frost and not susceptible to wood pests.
Folder (Baltais Dzidrais)
The tree comes from the Baltic countries, the ripening of the fruits occurs a week earlier than in the white bulk.
The fruits are perishable, so they must be processed immediately after collection or processed into jams, mashed potatoes, preserves.
Average resistance to drought and frost, the variety is not affected by pests.
Grushovka Moscow (Grushovka moskovskaya)
A tree with a dense crown, the fruits ripen in July.
Fruits can have a color from green to white, there are pink stripes, taste with sourness.
Frost resistance is high, in a drought a tree can suffer from scab.
Canadian variety, the crown of the tree is dense.
The fruits are large, tasty, oblong.
It tolerates frosts and has low resistance to scab.
The fruits ripen in late summer, the origin of the tree is Canadian.
Fruits are green, light weight, taste with sourness.
Tolerates frosts, prone to scab.
Mid-ripe apples ripen in the fall - from October to November. Plants are able to produce crops until January.
Resistant to disease and weather
Striped Anis (Anis polosatyi)
Mid-season variety, characterized by a dense crown.
Fruits are green, medium in size, sweet and sour.
Resistance to scab is medium, to black cancer is good.
Tall tree with spherical crown.
The fruits are medium, greenish-yellow, with a sour taste.
Frost resistance is good, scab resistance is poor.
The tree is medium in height, the crown is rounded, fruit ripening in September.
Fruits are light yellow with a red tinge, fragrant, juicy.
The variety is resistant to scab, not afraid of frost.
Tall tree with panicle crown.
Fruits are medium, round, yellow with a pinkish blush.
Frost resistance is good, scab resistance is excellent.
Tall tree with a spreading crown.
Fruits are roundish, greenish-yellow, juicy, ripen unevenly.
Frost and scab resistance is high.
Late ripening varieties
Varieties with late ripening give fruit from autumn to winter. They are valuable, but, due to insufficient maturity, it is impossible to use them right after removal, fruit ripening is carried out during storage.
Resistant to disease and weather
Antonovka ordinary (Antonovka)
Tall tree with an oval crown.
Fruits are rounded, greenish, the shelf life is small.
Winter-hardy grade, scab resistance is low.
Tall tree with a rounded crown.
Apples flattened, with stripes of raspberry color, juicy flesh.
Winter hardiness and scab resistance are good.
Bezhin Meadow (Bejin lug)
Large tree with a rounded crown.
The fruits are stored until early February, apples are oblong, green with a raspberry hue, juicy.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance are good.
Tall tree with a flattened crown.
Conical apples, yellow with a red tint, taste with sourness.
Winter hardiness is average.
Tall tree, pyramidal crown, excellent productivity.
Apples are round-conical, juicy, with a pleasant taste.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance is excellent.
Apple trees can be planted twice a year - in the early spring, when the buds have not yet blossomed, and in the fall, when leaf fall has already passed. Seedlings are better to choose in a special store, where they are temporarily stored in prikop or in the nursery. They must be selected carefully: there should be no damage, the plant should not look lethargic or painful, have an unusual color for it.
Planting purchased material should be done as soon as possible, immediately after purchase. In some cases, you can store seedlings for several days in the cellar and prikop. The seedling should be placed in a trench of small depth, at an angle of 45 degrees, the root system is lightly sprinkled with soil. And of course you must not forget to water it.
Pits for planting must be prepared 6-12 months prior to planting. There are few requirements for the place - only good lighting, it is worth making sure that the soils do not erode or waterlog the groundwater. If the latter occurs, drainage is mandatory.
How to plant an apple tree
The height of the groundwater should be less than 1.5 m. Before planting, it must be soaked for 24 hours in water, a third shorter, and then dipped in clay mash. All this will improve the contact of the soil and the root system. Growth regulator supplements such as heteroauxin are acceptable.
In the center of the landing pit, you need to organize a mound, where the root system should be distributed. Then fill it with soil and tamp. The place where the first root leaves should be 5 cm above the edges of the landing pit. Next, as the final stroke, you should form a trunk circle around the perimeter of the pit. This will simplify the watering process. Do not forget to mulch the circle, that is, add a five-centimeter layer of peat so that the water does not evaporate so intensively.
Culture Care Features
Caring for an apple tree involves feeding, watering and pruning. We consider each item in more detail.
In the first year, fertilizers are not required for the seedling. At this time, it is better to direct forces to weeding weeds and abundant watering. Then you should make top dressing, according to the following scheme:
- In the fall, potash fertilizers and superphosphate are added for digging, as well as organic fertilizers.
- In the spring, 2/3 of the nitrogen substances are brought in before buds are opened, the remaining part is made at the end of flowering.
Fertilizing in the first three years takes place to a depth of 15 cm, then the substances are introduced to a depth of 45 cm, at a distance of one and a half meters from the trunk.
Watering the apple tree is carried out according to the rule: how old the plant is, how many buckets of water under it must be poured. In this case, watering is carried out along the perimeter of the crown, and not directly under the trunk. A three-time watering culture is enough:
- first water the apple tree in early summer;
- the second - during the filling of apples (June-July);
- the third - before frost in the fall.
How to form a crown
In order for the apple tree to give a good harvest, some branches should be removed from it. Summer pruning is necessary to obtain a quality crop and to rejuvenate old trees. Despite the fact that some gardeners prefer autumn pruning, summer should not be neglected either, since this measure will protect the tree from the invasion of the pest.
What branches should be removed? Old and diseased branches are to be eliminated, as well as those that create severe shading. Unnecessary branches can simply be broken down, but it is better to use a garden pruner.
How to prune an apple tree
Growing apple trees involves the implementation of the protection of the culture from the sun and frost. If you neglect these measures, a good harvest can not wait.
How to protect a tree from frost
To protect against frost, it is recommended to wrap the plants with a blanket of snow before the cold weather. Of great importance is the protection of the roots, since the general health of the culture depends on them. Mulching will help protect the root system.
Another method of protection is tying the trunk with insulation or applying whitewash on it. Insulation can be represented:
- coniferous branches.
Whitewashing of trunks is carried out in autumn with warm and clear weather. It is not worth zealous when carrying out protection work, otherwise the cortex will be difficult to breathe.
Quality sun protection
Protecting the apple tree from the winter sun, so that it does not receive a burn, a polyamide sheeting will help. If you wrap her culture, she will not be afraid of direct sunlight. You can use the film for several years. As protection, you can use aluminum foil, which perfectly reflects the rays of the sun. For the same purpose, and whitewashing trees.
Apple tree is a seed crop. Its reproduction occurs by root offspring, rooting of cuttings, grafting of the cuttings.
Propagation by cuttings
Saplings from root cuttings are often used to obtain stocks and further vaccination. The presented method provides an opportunity for rapid reproduction. Saplings can also be obtained from root cuttings, but only if the mother tree has not been grafted.
The roots are cooked in the spring, until the juice has gone. Cuttings of 20 cm are cut, and then store them in the cellar, sprinkled with sand.
Features of propagation by layering
Rooting by layering is carried out by digging. A tree is planted in autumn so that its shoots come into contact with the ground. In spring, the branches are pinned to the ground for more tight contact. During the summer, sprouted shoots spud, as a result, by autumn, you can get full-fledged rooted seedlings. Then in the spring they are separated using a secateurs and placed in a permanent place.
An apple tree, like every tree, is susceptible to the appearance of diseases. Consider how to identify a problem and how to deal with it.
Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha)
A powdery white coating forms on the buds, leaves and shoots, which is becoming darker
Removing shoots, spraying with decoction of lime and sulfur
Scab (Venturia inaequalis)
It affects foliage and apples, occurs mainly in spring, brown spots are noted on the foliage
Destruction of fallen leaves, spraying the soil with 10% ammonium nitrate
Fruit Rot (Moniliose)
Swellings with spores of rot appear on apples, resembling concentric circles in appearance
Pruning and burning branches, harvesting fallen apples, fungicide treatment
Rust (Gymnosporangium tremelloides)
The fungus that affects the outside of the leaves forms a rusty-colored bloat
In order to avoid the appearance of the disease, apple trees should be planted next to conifers, the disease is controlled using fungicides
Sooty fungus (Gloeodes pomigena Colby)
Black plaque forms on shoots and leaves - the result of exposure to soot fungus
Spraying with copper soap and Bordeaux solution
The main pests of culture
The apple tree suffers from the invasion of the hawthorn (Aporia crataegi), which feeds on buds, leaves and flowers. The apple weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), which eats buds, also causes great harm to the plant. Fruit mites (Acari), which suck the plant's juice, are also dangerous. Leafworms, or rather their tracks, can also do harm..
Pest control is recommended to begin even before sap flow. The main prevention method is spraying trees with a urea solution. A good effect is given by spraying with biological agents, for example, Agravertin, Healthy Garden, Aurum-S, Zircon. To prevent burns, you should first spray only one branch and wait, if everything is in order, work continues. Caterpillars of pests are removed mechanically.
How to plant an apple tree
To grow an apple tree, you need to choose the right seedling, prepare a place for planting it. Then you have to take care of the plant and protect it from diseases, frost, sun and pests. Then the harvest will please you.